As the Syrian Democratic Forces' fight to capture the Islamic State's last stronghold al-Baghuz al-Fawqani in eastern Syria continues, one question that arises is: who exactly are the Islamic State fighters inside that enclave? As has become apparent from many video clips and reports, many Islamic State members and their families who were inside that enclave were the most hardcore supporters of the organization who retreated into the pocket as the Islamic State lost its other strongholds in eastern Syria.
The status of the Muslim Uyghur community in the region of East Turkestan in the west of China is a subject that has attracted considerable attention in western media in recent times. By contrast, it is fair to say that the issue is neglected in the Muslim world in comparison with, for example, the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, despite the fact that some of the reported practices in Chinese internment camps for Uyghurs are far worse than anything coming out of Israel and the Palestinian territories.
There is comparative Muslim neglect of the Uyghurs of East Turkestan (aka Xinjiang) for multiple reasons. For instance, unlike the West (in particular Europe, the U.S. and by extension Israel), China has not been portrayed as a great historical adversary of the Muslim world. China also maintains extensive economic ties with many Muslim countries (in particular Pakistan) and runs an efficient system of Internet information censorship.
كانت وسكس مملكة من الممالك الأنجلوساكسونية وكان إينا ملك وسكس من عام ٦٨٨ ميلادي حتى عام ٧٢٦ ميلادي. وهو معروف لانه أصدر مجموعة من قوانين واحكام تتعلق بأمور مختلفة. لم تحفظ كل هذه القوانين والأحكام, ولكن بعضها تبقى كملحق في مجموعة القوانين والأحكام التي اصدرها الملك ألفريد.
وفيما يلي أقدم لكم ترجمة عربية لمقتطفات من قوانين وأحكام إينا وكتبت تعليقات أيضاً.
See the link for the text.
تشتق اللغة الإنكيليزية من لغة عشائر جرمانية أتت إلى بريطانيا في القرن الخامس ميلادي بعد إنسحاب الرومان من بريطانيا. هذا النص هو تأريخ مختصر عن وصول هذه العشائر إلى بريطانيا.هذا التأريخ
وفعلا يوجد النسخة اللاتينية الأصلية بقلم القديس بيدا فبإمكاننا ان نقارن بين النص اللاتيني وبين الترجمة الإنكيليزية القديمة.
واقدم لكم النص الإنكيليزي القديم مع الترجمة العربية وتعليقاتي على النص
ملاحظة: النص اللاتيني الأصلي
St. Bede's Account of the Coming of the Germanic Tribes to Britain (Arabic Translation and Commentary)
Please see the link for the article.
In the aftermath of the Syrian government's recapture of the southern provinces of Deraa and Quneitra in summer 2018 through a combination of military force and reconciliation agreements, auxiliary groups have been set up in a number of areas to maintain security and recruit locals. The Syrian army's 4th Division has emerged as one of the main parties behind the establishment of auxiliary groups, alongside the military intelligence (Military Security/al-Amn al-Askari) and the Russian-backed V Corps.
Within the southwest Deraa countryside, three auxiliary groups of note are:
- The group of Abu Murshad, who is from Tafas.
Of these groups, the Abu Murshad group is affiliated with the V Corps. Abu Hayan was the leader of the Salafi faction Ahrar al-Sham in Heet, but is now reputedly affiliated with the Military Security and is head of the Heet unit/detachment (another account I have heard is that he is affiliated with the V Corps, but this is probably incorrect). The Abu Kinan group is affiliated with the 4th Division. On 13 March 2019, I conducted an interview with a member of the Abu Kinan group. Originally from Heet, this person was a member of Liwa al-Haramain rebel faction of Heet before he became affiliated with the Abu Kinan group.
The interview has been condensed slightly for clarity. Any parenthetical insertions in square brackets are my own.
Readers may remember my previous coverage of 'al-Nadhir al-Uryan', a channel on Telegram that is seen as embodying an 'extremist' trend within Islamic State online circles. To recall, this 'extremist' trend believes that the Islamic State leadership deviated from true monotheism by making unwarranted concessions to the 'dissident' (/'reformist') trend within the organization on issues such as whether takfir of the idolaters is of the principles of the religion. For al-Nadhir al-Uryan, these concessions marked a turn towards 'Jahmism' (see here for more).
In late December 2018, al-Nadhir al-Uryan wrote a short commentary on the Islamic State's situation following the fall of its Deir az-Zor stronghold of Hajin. In that commentary, the channel criticised the Islamic State for killing the true monotheists while relying on 'idolaters', who on leaving the Islamic State's territory for SDF-controlled areas in Syria willingly denounce the organization. However, with the Islamic State currently besieged in the locality of al-Baghuz al-Fawqani in what has been deemed the final showdown in eastern Syria, many of those leaving the enclave for the SDF-controlled areas- both men and women- have struck a very different tone, defiantly proclaiming that the Islamic State will endure.
The north Aleppo countryside zone stretching from Azaz to Jarabulus along the border with Turkey is known as 'Euphrates Shield.' There is an extensive Turkish military presence in that zone and Turkey has financed a number of projects in it. Local councils, meanwhile, provide services and work directly with Turkey.
To get a better sense of the functioning of local councils in the 'Euphrates Shield' zone, I interviewed Muhammad Hamdan Yusuf, the head of the local council of Azaz. Yusuf is a school teacher by profession and was born in 1950. He has worked with the Azaz local council for 3 years and was previously director of its education office.
The interview, which was conducted on 10 March 2019, has been slightly condensed for clarity. Any parenthetical insertions in square brackets are my own.
The Syrian insurgent group Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham (HTS), which dominates Idlib province and its environs, has a number of fighting forces at its disposal. One of the more recognisable HTS military units is the al-Asa'ib al-Hamra' ('Red Bands'), also called the Asa'ib al-Mawt ('Bands of Death'). On 6 March 2019 I interviewed one of the members of the al-Asa'ib al-Hamra. Originally from Deraa province, this person was a member of HTS' two predecessors: Jabhat Fatah al-Sham and then before that Jabhat al-Nusra, the latter of which was Syria's official al-Qa'ida affiliate. In fact, he joined Jabhat al-Nusra back in 2013.
Below is the interview, which is slightly condensed for clarity. The interview discusses the 'Red Bands', the general situation in the north of Syria and relations between HTS and the al-Qa'ida loyalist group Hurras al-Din. Any parenthetical insertions in square brackets are my own.