The Mozarabic Chronicle, an anonymous work that dates to 754 CE, is an extremely significant text as it is a contemporary Latin-language source on the Muslim invasion and conquest of Spain during the early eighth century. It is also important for being one of the earliest surviving Latin texts to mention the Prophet Muhammad by name (here he is called 'Mammet'), dating only slightly later than the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle, which serves as an appropriate text for comparison with the Mozarabic Chronicle (see my full translation and commentary on the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle).
The Mozarabic Chronicle covers a time frame beginning with the rise of Heraclius as Byzantine emperor in 610 CE and ending in 754 CE. The last major event described in the Mozarabic Chronicle is the overthrow of the Umayyad Caliphate and accession of Abu al-Abbas Abdullah al-Saffah as the first Abbasid caliph. For comparison, the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle covers the period 601-743/744 CE.
Unlike the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle, where there is some debate about the religious identity of the author (some contend the author of that chronicle is an Iberian convert to Islam, though I am skeptical of this line), there is no doubt about the Iberian Christian identity and perspective of the author of the Mozarabic Chronicle, such as in the explicit reference to Jesus as the Saviour and lauding of the bishops and clergy who promote the correct teachings of the Catholic faith.
The clarity of the author's religious identity and perspective means that the narrative style and content differ somewhat from that of the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle, even as both chronicles cover the same three broad strands of Arab affairs, Byzantine affairs and Visigothic rule in Spain. For example, the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle only deals superficially with Visigothic rule in Spain, while the Mozarabic Chronicle covers the reigns of various Visigothic kings in some detail, with a particular interest in the Councils of Toledo that were convened in this period, in keeping with the author's interest in matters of Christian doctrines. Such coverage is completely lacking in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle.
Further, whereas there are only three references to the divine in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle, the Mozarabic Chronicle has a much more active role for God in the narrative. For instance, the collapse of the Byzantine control over the Levant at the hands of the Arab invaders has a clear and strong divine component in the Mozarabic Chronicle's narrative. Heraclius has visions of rats from the desert and the connection is that this is the result of honours being rendered to the Heraclius rather than God for the triumph over the Persians, whereas it was Heraclius' trust in the Lord that granted him victory over the Goliath-like figure that Chosroes II brought out, leading to the collapse of the Persian forces. Similarly, during the Muslim conquest of Spain, the city of Zaragoza is described as being laid open by God's judgement. The Umayyad governor of Spain Abd al-Malik al-Fihri, in his failed expeditions against the inhabitants of the Pyrenees region, became convinced of the hand of God at work, as the Christians there awaited His mercy. Munnuz (Othman bin Naissa), a Berber who rebelled against Umayyad rule and allied himself with Duke Odo of Aquitania, became damned by God's judgement for killing Christians (including a bishop he burned with fire). There is also the famine brought upon Spain by God's angels during the rule of the governor Yusuf bin Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri.
However, the divine element does not serve as an all-encompassing explanation for events. In the description of the Battle of Tours, there is no reference to the hand of God at work. In fact, the implication of the narrative is that the Frankish victory under Charles Martel is due to solid battle tactics as the Franks firmly hold their battle lines- something that contrasts with the continuations of the Chronicle of Fredegar, which uses the phrase 'Christo auxiliante' ('with Christ helping') to describe Charles Martel's battle with the Arabs at Tours. Losses for the Byzantines besides the Arab conquests, such as the Slavic occupation of Greece and the Visigothic conquest of the last Byzantine enclaves in Spain, also lack a divine component to the narrative.
The author's Iberian Christian perspective becomes most apparent in describing the initial Muslim conquest of Spain. In an extended section, the author says that human nature cannot speak of the ruins and evils that Spain faced during this period, even if all the limbs were converted to the tongue. The author compares Spain's sufferings to those of Troy, Jerusalem, Babylon and Rome. As a result, Spain- a land 'condam deliciosa' ('once delightful')- is 'nunc misera effecta' ('now rendered miserable').
Yet as far as identity framing goes, it is notable that the Mozarabic Chronicle never speaks of the 'Muslims' as a religious group. Indeed, the author does not even realize that the caliph's title of Amir al-Mu'mineen means 'Commander of the Believers' but rather thinks that the title means 'managing all things prosperously'. The author's framing of the Muslims is actually in ethnic terms, primarily 'Saracens', 'Ishmaelites' and 'Arabs' while also noting the 'Moors' (Berbers) who fell under their dominion and participated, for example, in the conquest of Spain and settled there. There is no real knowledge of the new religion of Islam beyond Muhammad's status as a prophet, a connection between Abraham and Mecca, and the existence of sub-sects during the Berber Revolt in North Africa. In general, ethnic and national framings predominate. References to 'Christians' occur when necessary for the context, such as tax and property policies imposed on Christians by Umayyad governors in Spain (after all, Christians were defined as dhimmis in the Islamic system of governance) and the incorporation of a divine element into the narrative. The other main religious group referred to in the Mozarabic Chronicle are the Jews, and the depiction is clearly negative, as when the author likens Iulianus (a bishop of Jewish descent who wrote a work against the Jews cited by the author at the end of the work) to a rose that has arisen amid thorn-bushes.
The Mozarabic Chronicle stands out for being the earliest surviving Latin text to speak of 'Europeans' (Europenses) in discussing the Battle of Tours. The use of this term has caught some popular attention, but it has been misunderstood in its context. For instance, writing in The Guardian in 2016, Kwame Anthony Appiah claimed that 'simply put, the very idea of a 'European' was first used to contrast Christians and Muslims,' although he says that the idea is a 'bit of a simplification' as much of Europe in the middle of the eighth century CE was not yet Christian. However, the Mozarabic Chronicle does not use the term 'Europenses' to refer to a collective defined by Christianity as opposed to Muslims, but rather uses it to refer to 'gentes septentrionales' ('the northern peoples') and the 'gens Austrie' ('the people of Austria'): that is, the Franks under Charles Martel, fighting against the Arabs/Saracens/Ishmaelites.
Unlike the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle, the Mozarabic Chronicle demonstrates historical methods of source citations, giving contrasting accounts of events and discussing differing chronological systems. Indeed the entire last chapter is devoted to the issue of how many years should be counted from the beginning of the world according to different approaches. Similarly the author notes discrepancies regarding when a certain solar eclipse occurred in Spain.
Interestingly, in the discussion of Arab affairs, there are instances in which the language and phrasing of the Mozarabic Chronicle closely follow that of the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle, which could suggest two possibilities: (i) the Mozarabic Chronicle is using the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle as a source, or (ii) the two chronicles are using a common source. Whatever the truth, the Mozarabic Chronicle ends up with narrative features that are pro-Umayyad in the context of internal Arab affairs, such as the omission of Ali's caliphate and the positive portrayal of Yazid I.
A final note is needed on the style of the Latin of the Mozarabic Chronicle. The following features are most noteworthy:
- ae>e shift that is applied consistently. For example, compare 'deponsate' ('betrothed') in the opening chapter of the Mozarabic Chronicle with 'desponsatae' in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle.
- b-v confusion. For example, 'adventabit' ('arrived') in the Mozarabic Chronicle for standard 'adventavit', and 'renobat' ('renews') for standard 'renovat'. 'seba' ('savage') for standard 'saeva' is an example combining this confusion and the ae>e shift noted above.
- Occurrence of h where it should not occur. For example, 'humquam' ('ever') for standard 'umquam'. 'hac' ('and') for standard 'ac'.
- Accusative absolute construction used alongside the regular ablative absolute construction. This construction also occurs in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle.
- Blurring of neuter and masculine forms. For example, 'in hunc concilium' ('into this council') when the expected demonstrative pronoun form here is 'hoc' as 'concilium' is a neuter second declension noun. But cf. 'per epistolare alloquium' ('through letters of address') in which 'epistolare' is in the correct neuter accusative singular form.
- Freer use of the gerund in the ablative case to convey temporal meanings.
Below is the full translation with my extensive endnotes for matters like historical context.
[Update 7 December 2020: for the reader's convenience in the text I have provided the conversion of most of the era years into the equivalent CE years in square brackets].
Era 649 [611 CE]. Eraclius[i] was crowned fifty-seventh emperor of the Romans.[ii] He ruled for thirty years, with 5838 years having passed since the beginning of the world.[iii] This man, together with Nichita the master of the soldiers, devised a rebellion against Foca. He did so on account of love for the noblest virgin Flavia, who had been betrothed to him in Africa before he assumed control of the empire and had been deported by order of the princeps Foca from the borders of Libya to Constantinople. They set up a plan against the state: Eraclius assumed command of the cavalry, while Nichita assumed command of the united land army. In turn they agreed on the followed pact, that whoso of them should first reach Constantinople should deservedly enjoy the empire in the form of coronation. But Eraclius, setting out from Africa with a group of ships, came all the way to the royal capital more quickly by sailing. Foca, who resisted somewhat in war, was captured in Byzantium. They then struck him with the flaming sword. As soon as he saw him slain, he was elevated in that same place with control of the empire.
Indeed Nichita, penetrating the deserts, attacked Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Judaea and Mesopotamia. He pursued the Persians fiercely and also restored the aforementioned provinces to the imperial Dominate.[iv] But the Persians, coming forth from their own homes and trusting in their courage and numbers, reformed and harassed the provinces neighbouring them. And the son of Cosdro the king of the Persians, fleeing his father in agitation, handed himself over to the Roman princeps, promising to hand over all of Persia eagerly to the aforementioned Augustus.
But Eraclius, having brought together the army with all its weaponry, set out and attacked Persia. Then Cosdro,[v] informed of this news, with the whole group of Persians stood in the way resisting. Finally, when both Eraclius and Cosdro were raging and came into contact with each other in the same area, they came to an agreement in word, that two warriors chosen from both armies should come down to single combat, so that they might test as predicting for themselves whatever they actually saw in them.[vi] And this they agreed on in the open air. They decided on their warrior through their own mind or council, so that (as we have said) whatever the outcome of fortune showed through their swords, this should fall upon the allies, just as they should adhere entirely from their own auspices to submitting in turn to the victor in that very place without delay. But Cosdro rather arrogant just like the Philistines brought out into the battle a certain bastard, as though another Goliath. All of Eraclius' warriors were terrified and withdrew. Then Eraclius, trusting in the Lord's help,[vii] coming down over him killed his enemy with one javelin.
And thus with the Persians suddenly fleeing in different directions, he came all the way through fighting to the city of Susa, which is their capital and centre. But now with Cosdro's royal authority destroyed and handed over to the imperial Dominate, the people rendered honours not to God, but to Eraclius himself.[viii] He received these honours and more and went back to Rome.[ix] And then with the army worthily remunerated, he ascended his throne in glorious triumph. Then they say that many things regarding this matter came to him in his dreams as a warning and that he would be devastated mercilessly by rats of the desert.[x] Also he was warned of these things by an astrological sign from the course of the stars.
This Eraclius, as we have said, subdued the rebelling Persians, and restored the imperial lands while waging war. Though misled by the praises of the people not to God but to himself, as they say, hile they magnified the honour of victory, he unpleasantly foresaw a significant, huge danger through sight and became terrified.
In the times of this man,[xi] in era 653 [615 CE], the fourth year of his imperial reign, the Slavs occupied Greece.
The Saracens in era 656 [618 CE], in the seventh year of Eraclius' rule, claimed for themselves Syria, Arabia and Mesopotamia by stealth more than by virtue as Mammet[xii] their leader stirred up rebellion. And persevering not so much by open breakthroughs as secret incursions, they laid waste to neighbouring provinces. And thus by any means, skill, trickery and virtue they harassed all the adjacent cities of the empire and finally shaking the yoke from the neck they openly rebelled. And in era 656, in the seventh year of Eraclius' imperial reign, they invaded the realm, which they claimed while waging war bravely with frequent and various turns of fortunes.
And as Theodorus, the brother of Eraclius the Augustus, fought many battles against them, he departed from the battle to multiply and bring together peoples for war as per the warning of his brother who remembered the vision of rats.[xiii] But as their slaughter grew daily the Roman legions became so afraid that with battle committed at the town of Gabata[xiv] the army was entirely routed and Theodorus was killed and departed from this world. Then the Saracens, thoroughly certain of such great slaughter of the nobles and with fear shaken off,[xv] established a realm in Damascus, the most splendid city of Syria.
After ten years of Mamet's rule had come to a close, Abubaccar,[xvi] who was from his tribe,[xvii] succeeded to the throne. With his group he himself led not inconsiderable invasions against the Romans and Persians. For, we have already said, in the era 653 (the fourth year of Eraclius' imperial rule), the Arabs rebelled and in the era 656 they attacked Theodorus the brother of the Augustus who was worn out by battles almost throughout ten years. Finally they overcame him as he came out in war and they killed him as he fiercely resisted. And they openly brought together a realm at Damascus, with the support of Mammet their prophet and the fear of the Roman name shaken off.[xviii]
In the times of this Eraclius in era 669 [631 CE], in the twentieth year of his rule, and the fourteenth of the Arabs beginning,[xix] Abubaccar, who had ruled for three years, came to the end of his life and left Amer on the throne. Thus Amer,[xx] undertaking all the reins of his predecessor for the people, remained solidly in power for ten years. This man subjected Alexandria, the most ancient and flourishing civil metropolis of Egypt to the censuary yoke.[xxi] Although this man won victories in all parts of both East and West in both land and sea battles, he was struck with the sword by a certain slave while attending prayers. Then he came to the end of his life after having ruled for ten years.
In the times of this Eraclius in era 650 [612 CE], in the second year of his rule, at the time when the Saracens were still remaining under tribute to the Romans, Sisebutus[xxii] held Iberia for eight years. He was a wise man and very much devoted to literature. This man subjugated the Roman cities throughout Hispania[xxiii] and summoned the Jews by force to faith in Christ.[xxiv] The church proclaimed the Venerable Elladius- the metropolitan bishop of the seat of the royal city of Toletum- as a saint.[xxv] Hispania celebrated Isidorus Hispalensis[xxvi] the metropolitan bishop as a learned doctor. This man in the seventh year of the aforementioned princeps[xxvii] Sisebutus in the conclave of sacred Iherusalem at Ispalis led a council[xxviii] against the heresy of the Acephalites, and through the true testimonies of the doctors he overcame a certain Syrian- an Acephalite bishop preaching the aforementioned heresy- and damned his words by affirming the correct assertions of the council. And he freed forever the aforementioned bishop from his old error by following up for a long time.
At last Recharredus[xxix] succeeded this Sisebutus on the throne, though he only ruled for three months. The brevity of this man's life records nothing noteworthy.
In the times of this Eraclius in era 659 [621 CE], in the tenth year of his rule and the fourth of the Arabs when Mammet ruled among them, Suintila[xxx] worthily assumed the reigns of governance in the kingdom of the Goths, ruling for 10 years. This man completed the war that was begun with the Romans and through a swift victory obtained monarchical rule over all of Ispania.
In the times of this Eraclius in era 669 [631 CE], in the twentieth year of his rule, and the fourteenth of the Arabs, when Amer had ruled among them for almost a year, Sisenandus[xxxi] was placed on the royal throne for a rule of five years through a coup and invasion of the Goths' kingdom.[xxxii] In the third year of his rule, 360 bishops of Gallia and Hispania were brought together in Toletum[xxxiii] with the deputies of those absent or seniors of the palace at the church of St. Leocadia the Virgin and the Martyr Christ, following the example of Reccaredus the previous king of the Goths. At the time Ysidorus Ispalensis[xxxiv] was still bishop and outstanding in the production already of many books. This man held a council concerning different matters. Braulio Cesaragustanus[xxxv] the bishop stood out to this holy synod among the others. Rome,[xxxvi] the mother and master of cities presently, showed sufficient admiration for his eloquence through his letters of address.
In the times of this Eraclius in era 674 [636 CE], in the twenty-fifth year of his rule, and the seventeenth of the Arabs, with Amer ruling among them for five years and now beginning his sixth, Cintila[xxxvii] was put in charge of the Goths, ruling for six years. This man held the Toletanian council of twenty-four bishops, where he provided illumination not only on worldly matters, but also divine ones in teaching the unknowing minds. The book of canons shows indeed how great a congregation of holy men gathered into the church of St. Leocadia the Virgin and the Martyr Christ, with the deputies of bishops in attendance as well as the seniors of the palace (who were deemed worthy to participate) attending the council. To this synod Braulio Cesaragustanus the bishop stood out above the rest and properly taught the pious doctrine of Christ to minds. Even now the church reads his works.
In the times of this Eraclius in era 678 [640 CE], in the twenty-ninth year of his rule, and the twenty-third of the Arabs, with Amer ruling for the tenth year among them, Tulgas- of good nature but inexperienced- undertook the rule of the Goths and ruled as princeps for two years.[xxxviii]
In the times of this man in era 680 [642 CE], in the first year of his rule, and the twenty-fifth of the Arabs, Attuman[xli] undertook the administration of his people for twelve years. During the second year of his rule he expanded the extent of the government and he joined to the Saracens' rule and subjected to their dominion Libya Marmoricis, Pentapolis, Gazania and also Eziopia, which lie in the desert sands beyond Egypt. He also made very many cities of the Persians tributaries. Finally he was killed in their own civil war, having ruled for twelve years.
In the times of this man in era 680, in the first year of Constantinus' rule, and the twenty-fifth of the Arabs as Atthuman ruled among them for the second year, Chindasuintus,[xlii] after invading through a coup and tearing down the kingdom of the Goths, became princeps in Yberia in triumph. He ruled through six years which were without his son.[xliii] This man in the fifth year of his rule wondrously gave orders for a synod to be held,[xliv] consisting of thirty bishops with all the clergy and indeed deputies of these bishops, whom weariness or lack of means prevented from attending, as well as the palatine collegiate, who merited participation by election of the collegiate. Roaming about also were notaries whom the order needed to recite or receive. This man sent forth by ship Taio Cesaragustanus the bishop[xlv]- sufficiently imbibed with the literature of the order and familiar with the scriptures- to Rome in order to petition on his behalf for the remaining books of Moralia.[xlvi] While he was being delayed from day to day for a long time by the Roman pope,[xlvii] as though they could not at all easily find a little book sought for a multitude in the archives of the Roman church, he spent the night praying to the Lord and sought his mercy at the altars of the blessed Peter the chief of the apostles. While he was doing this, an angel showed to him a book-box in which it was covered. But the pope foresaw himself being reprimanded soon, so with excessive veneration he provided him assistance to transcribe a copy and sent it through him to the lands of Spain to have it read, because they kept hold of only part of the commentary on the book of the blessed Iob, which had been brought by the blessed Leandrus the bishop and carried once with honour. Indeed when Taio the bishop was asked and made to swear as an oath by the Roman pope as to how the actual place of those books had been shown to him, he said the following to him after much apology and with much enthusiasm: that on a certain night he requested from the hosts of the church of the blessed apostle Peter that he should stay up all night there. After he had got his request, suddenly in the middle of the night while he was bowing himself with excessive laments in prayer before the place of the blessed apostle Peter, a divine light emitted from an indescribable source of light stood out filling the whole church, such that there was no need for the candles of the church to shine, and at the same time together with the light itself voices of those singing psalms and lights of those shining entered as columns of saints. Finally when he stood terrified with excess horror and when the prayer was completed by them, gradually two whitewashed old men came out of that group of saints and began to hover over in that part, where the bishop was praying. But when they found him almost dead already, they greeted him sweetly and led him back to his own senses. And when he was asked by them why he made so great an effort or why hurrying from the West he sought such a long naval journey, they listened attentively to this and that related by him as though they did not know. Then with many words they showed as suitable consolation for him the place where the very books lay hidden. So when the saints were asked what was that crowd of attending saints with such clear light, they responded saying it was Peter the apostle of Christ and at the same time Paul in turn holding each other by hand together with all the successors residing in that place of the church. Then, when they themselves were asked who were the lords who had such a wondrous conversation with him, one of them responded to him that he was Gregorius[xlviii]- whose book he wished to see- and he had come so that they might remunerate him for such a vast effort and restore to him a very long desire that had been increased. Then, having been asked if at last in that saintly multitude the wise Agustinus[xlix] was present, as he always used to love avidly reading his books an those of Saint Gregorius himself from his childhood, he is only said to have responded as follows: "That very famous man and most welcome by the longing of all- the Agustinus whom you seek: a higher place holds him away from us." But when he began to rush forth bent over to their feet, that most holy man disappeared together with the light away from his eyes, and the deacons themselves were also terrified. So from that day the venerable Taio, who was previously despised as ignoble, has stood out as glorious in the eyes of all in that same seat of the apostles.
In the era 684 [646 CE], Constans[l] the son of Constantinus was crowned the fifty-ninth emperor of the Romans, ruling for twenty-seven years, with 5871 years having passed since the beginning of the world. This man fiercely fought with the Arabs in a naval battle. He at last was killed at the renowned city of Siracusa[li] of Sicily in a plot, having completed twenty-seven years of his rule. During this man's rule, when the sun was obscured in the middle of the day, the sky revealed the stars.
In the times of this man in era 685 [647 CE] and in the thirtieth year of the rule of the Saracens, when Atthomam was ruling for the seventh year among them, Chindas gave the kingdom of the Goths to his son Reccesuintus,[lii] who, although disgraceful, was nonetheless of good impulse. He ruled for twenty-four years. This man excellently brought together frequent councils (with Eugenius the pious metropolitan bishop of Toletum of the royal city at the head: these councils of forty-six bishops with innumerable clergy as well as deputies of those not attending and the most worthy palatine officialdom) into one place in the praetorian basilica of the holy apostles Peter and Paul. He not only instructed ignorant minds concerning worldly matters, but also about the mystery of the holy Trinity. In the times of this man all of Spania became frightened at an eclipse of the Sun as the stars became visible at midday and looked on an invasion of the Basques with considerable losses to the army.
In the times of this man[liii] in era 690 [652 CE], in the thirty-fifth year of the rule of the Saracens, Moabia obtained the seat of his predecessor,[liv] ruling in it for twenty-five years. But for five of those years he waged civil wars with his own people, while he ruled for twenty with the greatest felicity as all the people of the Smahelites[lv] were in obedience. Against him Constans the Augustus brought together one thousand and more ships but unsuccessfully fought him and fleeing with only a few ships managed to escape. Through a commander also called Abdella,[lvi] who held leadership of the uncompleted struggle for a while, many things were successfully accomplished in the West. He came to Tripoli, and attacked through warfare Cimdamis and Elempties. After many desolations, the conquest of various lands, devastation of provinces and the bringing of very many bands of people into allegiance, he was still thirsty for blood and arrived in Africa with all the contingents of warriors. With the preparations for the battles made, the battle-line of the Moors[lvii] was thence put to flight and all the nobility of Africa with Count Gregorius was destroyed to the point of extermination.[lviii] Also Abdella, burdened with large benefits returned back to Egypt along with all his cohort, while Mauia was completing the tenth year of his rule.
This Mauia handed over 100,000 men to his son to obey and to head to Constantinople. Since they surrounded with siege through the whole springtime and could not bear work with this pestilence of hunger, they abandoned the city even as they had captured very many towns, and burdened with booty they safely returned to Damascus and the king by whom they had been directed after two years. So Moabia paid the debt of human nature after he filled out twenty years of his principate, five of which he lived as a civilian.
In the era 711 [673 CE], Constantinus[lix] the son of Constantius was crowned sixtieth emperor of the Romans. He ruled for fifteen years, with 5886 years having passed since the beginning of the world. This man, hearing that his father was killed by the sedition of his own men at Siracusa, sought the palace with the fleet he could muster and ascended the throne in glorious triumph.
In the times of this man in era 716 [678 CE], in the fifth year of his rule and the sixty-first of the Arabs, Yzit the most pleasant son of Mauia obtained the place of the kingdom for three years and during his rule he was a man held in the extremely high regard in the eyes of all the peoples subdued under his nation. He never sought any glory for the sake of royal dignity for himself (as is the custom of men), but rather lived as a civilian in common with all.[lx]
This man, after three years had been completed, left Mauia[lxi] the grandson as successor. He was similar to his father in customs. When he attained the throne, he remitted a third of the tribute for all. This Mauia, after remaining in power for two years, departed from this light.
In the times of this man in era 716, with the sixth year of his rule beginning, and the fifty-third of the Arabs, after the younger Mauia died, the armies of all the Arabs through almost four years were variously divided into two principes. So great was their conflict that the sword consumed innumerable hordes of both sides. Then one of them called Maroan,[lxii] so that he might have the aid of soldiers and not be impeded, on each day paid an amount of proven integral gold of 1000 solidi, an Arabian mule with fine silks for nine years to the emperor for the sake of peace. He did this so that he should not be impeded. He also gave a fine girl in addition to all the things named above, and all of the captives that had once been taken in previous times were released.[lxiii]
In the times of this man in 720 [682 CE],[lxiv] in the tenth year of his rule, in the sixty-sixth year of the Arabs, Abdilmelic[lxv] assumed the apex of the kingdom and ruled for twenty years. This man pursued his father's rival at Macca, which, as they themselves assert, is the home of Abraham, between Ur of the Chaldeans and Carrae of Mesopotamia.[lxvi] He killed him through a commander he dispatched and through fighting in the wisest manner he ended the civil wars.
In the times of this man in era 712 [674 CE], in the first year of his rule, and the fifty-seventh year of the Arabs, the twenty-third of Mauia's rule, Vuamba[lxvii] ruled as prefect of the Goths for eight years. This man in the aforementioned era holding the royal scepters of his rule renovated the city of Toletum wondrously and through elegant labour. He underlined this work through writing verse in sculptor work and dedicated this epigram on gates in iron pen in bright and lucid marble.
The renowned king has erected the city with God supporting.
Vuamba protecting the abundant honour of his people.
Also regarding the memories of the martyrs, which he titled over the same little towers of the gates, he similarly noted down:
You, holy Lords, whose presence here glows,
Save this city and the people with accustomed favour.
In the fourth year of his rule in era 713 [675 CE] in the city of Toletum in the seat of the blessed mother of the Lord the Virgin Maria in the conclave hall, after the passing of eighteen years of slaughters of various disturbances similar to that crooked woman in the Gospel,[lxviii] this man prepared a council[lxix] of salvation in the church and gathered all the bishops of Spania and Gallia in a synod, with whom he also sufficiently complained of the times that had passed without the councils. In this indeed he received consolation with eminent men, because then the most holy Hildefonsus[lxx] was shining forth and applying his honey-sweet, golden and eloquent mouth to different books. He also discussed the eternal virginity of our lady-lord the Virgin Maria in clear and accomplished speech using synonyms, and the anchor of his faith took residence at the time in the whole of his church.[lxxi] Little books were put out by him and distributed through Iberia as indeed minds were restored by the great gathering of faithful readers and the pusillanimous were greatly consoled by the rivulets of doctrines in that time.
In the time of this man in era 718 [680 CE], in the seventh year of his rule, and the sixty-second of the Arabs, as Abdella[lxxii] and Maroan were beginning to fight against each other for the kingdom, Ervigius was crowned king of the Goths.[lxxiii] He ruled for seven years. In his time harsh famine ravaged Spania. This man in his first year mostly splendidly held the twelfth Toletanian council in era 719[lxxiv] consisting of thirty-five bishops with innumerable clergy and the college of Christian monks. In this time already the bishop Iulianus,[lxxv] having come from a line of Jews like a flower of roses from amid thorn-bushes, was pre-eminent in all parts of the world concerning the doctrine of Christ. He indeed, born from Christian parents was educated splendidly in all prudence in Toletum, where he later became ordained as a bishop.
In era 726 [688 CE], Iustinianus[lxxvi] was crowned sixty-first emperor of the Romans. He ruled for ten years before being deposed, with 5896 years having passed since the beginning of the world.
In the times of this man in era 726, in the first year of his rule, and the seventieth of the Arabs, Abdelmelic was already retaining the apex of the kingdom in ruling for four years.
In the time of this man in era 726, in the first year of his rule and the seventieth of the Arabs, with Abdelmelic reigning for the fifth year, Egika obtained the first and foremost principate to guard the realm of the Goths.[lxxvii] He ruled for fifteen years. This man oppressed the Goths with gloomy death. A terrible plague mercilessly fell upon them during the time of this man. In the first year of his rule he held a council in era 726 at the city of Toletum in the praetorian church of the holy apostles Peter and Paul. All the bishops of Spania and Gallia were gathered. The doctor Iulianus of blessed memory was pre-eminent among the sixty bishops and the multiple collegial clergy of the Christians and all the common people were enthusiastically gathered around. In this he asked the synod that he be released regarding different matters and he also requested the release of the oath, which he had wrongly sworn to the aforementioned princeps Ervigius. The most holy Iulianus the metropolitan bishop of the royal city had written[lxxviii] a book about the three substances and had sent it a while ago to Rome and the Roman pope following little investigation had ordered for it to be banned, because he had written some two years before "Will begat will." Iulianus the bishop composed an apologia with the true testimonies in this council to the praise of the aforementioned princeps. He made use of the precepts of the elders, affirming that what he had sent to Rome was true. He sent the work across through his ecclesiastical legates- a presbyter, deacon and sub-deacon, most learned servants of God in all matters and imbued in all things concerning the divine scriptures- and along with this he also sent verses in praise of the emperor as he had sent across before. Rome worthily and piously received this and gave orders for all to review it and made the greatest emperor aware with the sufficient acclamation: "Your praise, oh God, in the ends of the earth." He also sent back an honourable reply to the lordly Iulianus through the aforementioned legates with sufficient thanks and decreed that all the things he wrote were just and pious.
In the era 736 [698 CE], Leo[lxxix] was crowned sixty-second emperor of the Romans through a coup. He ruled amid unrest for three years, with 5899 years having passed since the beginning of the world. This man took the empire for himself in a coup after Iustianianus was overthrown.
In the times of this man in era 736 (the seventh and eighth), in the first, second and third year of his rule, and the seventy-ninth, eightieth and eighty-first year of the Arabs, Abdelmelic completed the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth year of his rule.
In the time of this man in era 736, in the first year of Leo's rule, and the eightieth of the Arabs, the sixteenth of Abdelmelec's rule, Egika made his son Vuittiza his heir in sharing the kingdom and they kept hold of the kingdom of the Goths.[lxxx] This man who succeeded to his father's throne, though unruly, stood out as a most merciful man for fifteen years in rule.[lxxxi] He not only received into grace those scorned to exile who had been damned by his father, but also he was generous in restoring them. For whose whom his father had oppressed with the heavy yoke, he led them back in their former glory. And those whom his father had disinherited of their own soil, he restored and gave reparations out of pious giving. And thus with all called together at last this man in the sight of all justly burnt the bails that his father had carried off through deceit. And not only did he pronounce them free, if they wished, of the bond that could not be paid, but also he restored to the palatine office from his own things and what had once been transferred away from the public treasury. At the same time Felix flourished as the bishop of the seat of the royal city of Toletum- a man with the excellence of gravity and prudence- and he held distinguished councils still with both principes.
In the era 738 [700 CE], Absimarus[lxxxii] was crowned sixty-third emperor of the Romans ruling for seven years, with 5905 years having passed from the beginning of the world.
In the times of this man in era 738, in the first year of his rule, and the eighty-second of the Arabs with the eighty-third begun as Abdelmelec was ruling for seventeen years, Vuitiza and his already very old father ruled equally. They also in era 739 [701 CE], not able to bear the destruction of the aforementioned disaster, wandered out of the palace through Spania. When the disaster passed, and with his father having died, he ruled most prosperously for the aforementioned years, and all of Spania, relying on much joy, was keenly delighted. At the same time Gundericus, the metropolitan bishop of the seat of the royal city of Toletum was considered illustrious by the gift of virtue and was celebrated as a doer of many wondrous things.
In the era 745 [707 CE], Iustianianus, who had been the sixty-first emperor, was restored to power as the sixty-fourth emperor of the Romans aided by the force and virtue of the Gazans. He ruled again for ten years, with 5915 years having passed since the beginning of the world.
In the times of this man in the aforementioned era, in the first year of his rule, and the eighty-ninth of the Arabs, Ulit became ruler among the Arabs.[lxxxiii] In the Spanish lands, Vuitiza continued into the fifteenth year in rule.
In the times of this man in era 757 [719 CE], in the fourth year of Iustinianus' rule, and the ninety-first of the Arabs, Ulit, who had taken the scepters of the rule of the Saracens in accordance with what his father had expounded and had waged war for four years against people, now in rule and endowed with many honours was triumphant for nine years. He was a man of whole prudence in setting out the armies such that, though lacking in divine favour, he broke the virtue of almost all the neighbouring peoples and made the Roman realm among all things weak through continual devastation. He also nearly destroyed the islands and conquered the borders of India through devastation. He reduced cities to contemptible poverty and afflicted fortresses with siege. He subjugated all of Mauritania[lxxxiv] through the bends of Libya. Also in the western parts, attacking through the general of his army called Muze,[lxxxv] he conquered the kingdom of the Goths and made the land a tributary after removing the kingdom. The kingdom was of old and stood solidly through some 350 years, made lasting from the 400th era from the outset and its own beginning, stretched out peacefully over the Spanish lands from the time of Liuvigildus[lxxxvi] through some 140 years all the way into era 750 [712 CE].
In the times of this man in era 749 [711 CE] in the fourth year of his rule, and the ninety-second of the Arabs, as Ulit retained the scepters of rule through the fifth year, Rudericus[lxxxvii] invaded the kingdom in a tumult with the Senate's support.[lxxxviii] He ruled for one year. So the force of the army was gathered against the Arabs who were together with the Moors sent by Muza: that is, Taric Abuzara[lxxxix] and the others. For a long time they had been launching incursions into a province effectively loaned to them and at the same time were laying waste to very many cities. In the fifth year of Iustinianus' rule, and the ninety-third of the Arabs, the sixth of Ulit, in era 750 at the Transductine promontories[xc] he came to blows with them and fell in that battle with the routing of the whole army of the Goths, who had arrived with him in envy and fraud on account of the ambition for the kingdom.[xci] And thus he badly lost the kingdom along with the country with the killing of rivals,[xcii] while Ulit was completing his sixth year of rule.
In the same period Sinderedus of divine memory- the metropolitan bishop of the royal city- was pre-eminent by virtue of his piety he aroused aged and honourable men in merit, whom he had found in the aforementioned church entrusted to him, with envy for piety but not according to knowledge. Rather, at the instigation of the aforementioned princeps Vuitiza, he did not cease to push against them in his time. Frightened considerably at the invasions of the Arabs, not as a pastor, but as a hireling he abandoned the sheep of Christ against the decrees of the elders and brought himself to the Roman realm.
In the times of this man in era 749, in the fourth year of his rule, and the ninety-second of the Arabs, the fifth of Ulit's rule, while Spania was being devastated through those he had sent previously named and indeed was being torn not only through enemy hostility but also internal uproar,[xciii] Muza himself approached the very wretched land through the Gaditanian strait.[xciv] The pillars of Hercules[xcv] were revealing and pointing out the approach of the harbour as though they were the guide of a book or even keys in hand giving advanced knowledge of or even making accessible the crossing of Spania. He penetrated and destroyed the land long seized evilly and attacked with whole impiety. And breaking through all the way up to the royal city of Toletum, he inflicted on the adjacent regions a fraudulent peace while he bound by the sword of the scaffold of the cross several more senior nobles, who had still remained and tried to secure flight from Toletum through Oppa the son of king Egicha.[xcvi] On the grounds of this, he butchered all of them with the sword. And thus he devastated through sword, starvation and captivity not only further Spania, but also the nearer Spania[xcvii] all the way up to the most ancient and flourishing city of Cesaragusta[xcviii] now patiently laid open for a while by the judgement of God. He cast down fine cities with the burning fire, and condemned to crucifixion the senior and powerful of the generations, while butchering the young and infants with daggers. And thus while he provoked all through such terror, several cities which were remaining proclaimed peace, already acting under coercion. And while persuading and laughing with certain trickery [...][xcix] they[c] granted peace without delay. But when they[ci]- terrified with fear- rejected what had been obtained under coercion, they fled again to the mountains and exposed themselves to hunger and various forms of death. And they established a savage kingdom in the same unhappy Spania in the seat of Cordoba: for a long time a patrician see, which always stood out as most as most opulent above the rest of the adjacent cities and brought early delights to the kingdom of the Visigoths. For who can narrate such great dangers?[cii] Who can count such unfortunate sea disasters? For even if all limbs were turned into tongue, human nature will never at all be able to tell of the ruins of Spania and indeed such great evils that befell all of it. But that I may recount to the reader all things in a brief little page, with innumerable calamities of history from Adam all the way to the present left out (this foul, cruel world inflicted them over infinite regions and cities): whatever the captured Troy endured in history, whatever burdens Jerusalem bore as per the prophecies of the prophets, whatever Babilonia endured as per the writings of the scriptures, whatever finally Rome faced in terms of martyrs, decorated nonetheless with the distinguished nobility of the apostles, all these things too and more were experienced in honour and disgrace by Spania, once a delightful land and now rendered wretched.
For in era 750, in the sixth year of his rule, and the ninety-third of the Arabs, with Muza having fulfilled fifteen months, advised by the order of his principes, he left his son Abdellaziz[ciii] in place and selected nobles of Spania, who had escaped from the sword, together with gold and silver proven by the zeal of the moneychangers and a heap of notable ornaments and precious stones, pearls and ointments, by which the desire of matrons is accustomed to burn, from all parts of Spain- which would take a long time to write down. Returning home he presented himself to the sight of king Ulit in the last year of his rule.[civ] When he returned he found him angered by the will of God and he was cast out evilly by the neck from the sight of the princeps and was put on display in a parade.
[...]By the name of Theudimer,[cv] who had brought considerable slaughters to the Arabs in parts of Spania, and had struck a peace with them. But also under Egica and Uuittiza the kings of the Goths he had triumphed against the Greeks,[cvi] who had come down into their own country by sea and ships. Also much dignity and honour are referred to him and indeed he was sought by the Christians of the East and such great constancy of trust was found in him that all were referring considerable praises to God. For he was a lover of scriptures, of great eloquence, experienced in battles, and he was also found to be more prudent among the rest in the eyes of the Amir Almuminim[cvii] and honoured as a useful man. And a pact, which he had accepted a while back from Abdilaziz,[cviii] was firmly renewed by him.[cix] And thus he remained supported, that in no way was he released from such a strong position by the successors of the Arabs.[cx] And thus he returned to Spania with joy.[cxi]
After the death of this man Athanaildus was held in much honour and esteem. For he was a most opulent lord of all things and a dispensator of much money among them. But some tie later king Alozzam seized by some unknown fury attacked Spania and brought considerable injustices against him and made him pay a fine of 27,000 solidi. On hearing of the army, who had come with their leader Belgi,[cxii] within the space of almost three days they prepared everything and they rather swiftly came back into the grace of Alozza who was known by the name of Abulcatar and endowed him with diverse gifts.[cxiii]
Aforementioned [...].[cxiv] Ulit the Amir Almuminin (an idiom of royalty in their language which means 'managing all things prosperously')[cxv] punished him with a fine of 2,000,000 solidi and came to the end of his life. He did this even as he saw first the forces of all peoples and the gifts of Spania together with the beauty of the girls displayed to him and very strong fame was given little weight in his eyes. While he was condemning that man to death through torture, a request by the patrons and optimates, to whom he had offered many gifts from the most fabulous riches, was obtained on his behalf. That man,[cxvi] after accepting the council of Urbanus the most noble man of the African region who arose under the dogma of the Catholic faith and had come with him to all the lands of Spania,[cxvii] opted to furnish out for nothing and thought the burden imposed was little for much opulence. And thus giving guarantors of trust through his freedmen he counted a heap of coins, and with wondrous speed he paid the imposed weight and thus assigned it to the public treasury for the time of his successor.
In the eighth year of his rule, the ninety-sixth of the Arabs, the dead Ulit's blood brother Zuleiman[cxviii] succeeded him into rule in accordance with his request. He ruled for three years. This man, hostile to the Roman realm, sent his brother born from the same mother, called Muzilima,[cxix] with 100,000 armed men to destroy the Roman realm. This man destroyed Asia, which had been ravaged by war, with the sword and fire. From there he headed towards Constantinople, and as Muzilima foresaw that he would be in danger because of various necessities, he withdrew by the order of another princeps, having attained little success.
At the same time in era 753 [715 CE], in the ninth year of his rule and the ninety-seventh of the Arabs, Abdellazis pacified all of Spania under the censuary yoke over three years. While he took for himself the riches of Spalim[cxx] and the fasces of honours and the queen of Spania brought into marriage and the daughters of the kings and princes who were made concubines and then estranged imprudently, a rebellion of his own men arose and while attending prayers he was killed by a plot of Aiub[cxxi] and with that man retaining hold of Spania as the month ended, Aloar[cxxii] succeeded into the rule of Esperia[cxxiii] by princely orders. Thus it was proclaimed to him concerning the death of Abdillazis: that as though by the counsel of Egilo the queen and once the wife of king Rudericus, whom he had joined to himself, he tried to shake off the Arabic yoke from his neck and retain the invaded kingdom of Iberia for himself.
In era 754 [716 CE], Filippicus[cxxiv] was crowned sixty-fourth emperor of the Romans, ruling amid civil war for a quarter with a year, with 5916 years having passed from the beginning of the world. In the time of this man in the aforementioned era, in the first year of Philippicus, and ninety-eighth of the Arabs, Zuleiman, retaining the kingdom of the Saracens, ruled for three years. The Arabs ferociously devastated the Roman realm, burning with vengeful fire Pergamum, the most ancient and flourishing city of Asia.[cxxv] In the time of this man Alaor sent the force of judges through Spania, and waging war and pacifying through almost three years sought Gallia Narbonensis. And gradually arranging further Spania by putting in place the taxes system, he brought himself to nearer Iberia, ruling for the aforementioned years.
In era 756, Anastasius[cxxvi] was crowned the sixty-fifth emperor of the Romans, ruling amid civil war for a year and a half, with 5918 years having passed from the beginning of the world. In the time of this man Zuleiman, still holding the rule of the Arabs, made as successors of the kingdom to himself the son of his uncle called Humar[cxxvii] and his[cxxviii] brother Izit.[cxxix] In the Spanish lands indeed the aforementioned Alaor, taking up patrician Cordoba as a seat, retained the rule of the Saracens by disposition and imposed on the Christians small fees in peace time for the sake of bringing in taxes to the public treasuries. He imposed penalties on the Moors who had long been passing through Spanish lands for the treasures that had been taken from sight, and as they gushed in sack cloth, ashes, worms and even lice he retained them bound in prison and burdened them with chains and after questioning and imposing different penalties he had them lashed. In the same period, with era 758 [720 CE] beginning, the hundredth year of the Arabs, it is noted that a solar eclipse in Ispania occurred from the seventh hour of the day until the ninth, with the stars being visible to several. But most are convinced that this did not appear except in the time of the Zame[cxxx] the successor.
In era 757 [719 CE] Artemius[cxxxi] was crowned sixty-sixth emperor of the Romans. He was also known as Theudosius. He ruled for two years, with 5920 years having passed from the beginning of the world.
In the times of this man, Umar, while exercising tutelage for his brother Izit[cxxxii] as per the sacredness of his law, took over the governance of the kingdom. This Omar, with all battles ended, stood with such great benevolence and patience in rule, that such great honour and praised are referred to him, such that not only by his own people but also by external observers he is honoured above all previous principes. Indeed such great virtue is ascribed to him as has never been ascribed to anyone of the people of the Arabs in the governance of the kingdom.[cxxxiii]
So after Izit fully accepted the reigns of governance of the kingdom of the Saracens through succession as his brother had died, an army of his own people, who managed protection in the Persian lands, fomented a rebellion and prepared for civil war. And thus he sent his brother named above a while back- by the name Muzilima- with an innumerable army into the Babylonian plains over the Tigris river. A battle was fought, and immediately the battle line of the rebels collapsed in wondrous flight and the leader of the criminal act- called Izit- was caught, but they spared his life.[cxxxiv]
Then in the western parts they achieved many successes through battles. Zama, who held command in Spania for just less than three years, characterized further and nearer Iberia in his own pen for collection of taxes.[cxxxv] Booty, portable things and whatever there was- which all the Arab people has left undivided as booty in Spania. After dividing these things by lot to the allies, he joined a part of every movable and immovable thing to the treasury. Finally he made Gallia Narbonensis[cxxxvi] his own and harassed the people of the Franks through frequent raids and properly placed groups of Saracens in the aforementioned town of Narbonne to function as a protective garrison. And with bold courage the aforementioned commander came all the way up to Tolosa[cxxxvii] through fighting and surrounding it with siege he attempted to take it by storm through various kinds of schemes and machinations. And thus the peoples of the Franks, made aware of such news, were gathered with the leader of their own people called Eudo. And when at Tolosa both armies clashed in a huge battle, they killed Zama the leader of the army of the Saracens along with a gathered part of the multitude, and they pursued the remaining army that escaped in flight. Abdorraman[cxxxviii] undertook leadership of them for one month until Ambiza[cxxxix] should come as their guide by the princeps' orders. At the same time, Fredoarius the bishop of the seat of Accitana,[cxl] Urbanus the aforementioned veteran cathedral man of the seat of the royal city of Toletum, and Evantius the archdeacon of the same seat were considered outstanding in doctrine, wisdom, sanctity and also in everything according to scriptures, hope faith and kindness for strengthening the church of God.
In era 758, Leo[cxli] was crowned sixty-seventh emperor of the Romans. He ruled for twenty-four years, with 5944 years having passed from the beginning of the world. This Leo was a veteran of military discipline. The Saracens under Humar, who had decreed the kingdom to his brother,[cxlii] spent some time and had no successes. Under Izit indeed they piled on many battles. After some time, as they hurried under their king Iscam[cxliii] to take the royal city by storm, Leo undertook the scepters of the state, as we have said, by the acclamation of the whole Senate.
In the times of this man Izit the king of the Saracens in the aforementioned era obtained the first reins of governance of the kingdom. For thus it has always been held as a norm among the Arabs, that they only accept all successions of kings through prior naming by the princeps, so that when the person dies removed from stumbling blocks they assume the governance of the regime.
At the same time in era 759, in the second year of Leo's rule and the 103rd of the Arabs, Ambiza retained rule over Spania for four and a half years. He also- intending fights with the peoples of the Franks and endeavoring through directed satraps- fought unsuccessfully. Indeed through sneaky incursions with squadrons of troops he harassed and maimed several cities and fortresses and thus imposing doubled taxes for the Christians he triumphed with the fasces of honours in the Spanish lands.[cxliv] Finally the aforementioned Ambiza redoubled the expedition against the Franks, intending with all the public resources an incursion against them. While he was darting about enraged, he came upon the end of his own life and at the very end of it ordered for Hodera[cxlv] to be consul of the land entrusted to him and to be commander of the retreating and rather disorganized army.
He was immediately succeeded in era 763 [725 CE]- in almost the sixth year of the aforementioned emperor and the 107th of the Arabs- by a Saracen called Iaie[cxlvi] as per the order of the princes. He stood out as a cruel and terrible tyrant[cxlvii] for almost three years and with keen ingenuity he scolded the Saracens and Moors for the things once taken away by peaceful concession and restored more things to the Christians.
In the times of this man, Izit, after completing the fourth year of rule, departed from this light, leaving the kingdom to his brother called Yscam[cxlviii] and admitting as successor after his brother a son born of the same seed called Alulit. This Iscam at the beginning of his power in era 761, in the fifth year of the aforementioned emperor Leo, and the 106th of the Arabs, though displaying sufficient moderate temperament, had several successes through commanders of the army sent by him into the Roman realm by land and sea. But in the western parts he accomplished almost nothing noteworthy. Then, as he was seized by greed, such a great collection of money through commanders in East and West was made by him, as had never been gathered among the kings who had come before him. As considerable groups of people saw that there was dishonest greed within him, they disobeyed his diction. Then, with considerable civil havoc occurring over almost three and four years, he was barely able to restore to his power the provinces that had been lost.
In the time of this man in era 766 [728 CE], in the tenth year of his rule, and the 111th of the Arabs, the sixth of Iscam's rule, Odiffa,[cxlix] a very frivolous man, accepted authority from the African commander, who enjoyed the privilege of being able to confer power over Spania by the assent of the princeps. He ruled for six months removed from all seriousness[cl] and accomplished nothing noteworthy and adverse for the short duration of his rule.
In the same period in era 767 [729 CE], in the eleventh year of his rule, and the 112th of the Arabs, and the seventh of Iscam's rule, Attuman[cli] quietly hurried from the regions of Africa in order to take control of Spania. While for four months he upheld the other and adorned him with honours, Aleittan[clii] for the rule of Spania assiduously and openly showed the seal and princeps authority sent from the aforementioned parts. And while he ruled in an unruly sense for ten months, by some unknown craft he found that several Arabs preferred to remove him from rule. After catching them and torturing them for a time with lashes as he had been secretly ordered by peers overseas, he at last had them punished through beheading. Among those he struck with the sword was Zat, fully Saracen in descent, eminent in eloquence and a most opulent lord of diverse things. He had been tortured in punishment, abused with lashes and struck with blows of fists. Not many days after, at the petition of the people of those whose blood he had poured, Mammet,[cliii] on the assent of the princeps, was sent from the parts of Libya with a secret delegation of authority so that Abderrama[cliv] should be nominated in his place and without delay. But when Mammet in a tumult approached the Cordoban seat, Abdirraman not yet found forthwith, immediately Aleittan was caught firmly by Mammet. And after he had him placed in prison and in no way unpunished, whipped strongly without delay, condemned in disgrace and then shaved of hair, they dragged him in a parade on the backside of a donkey through the streets, bound by the hands behind the back and kept together with iron chains. And not many days after he directed for the man held in custody to be presented to the African commander, who, as they say, had referred the orders regarding Aleittan. While there was waiting for the orders from the royal seats of the king as to what should happen to him, the pen was covered with many conversations and assailed with various judgements, so they brought nothing against him, even as time vanished disappearing from one day into another for a long period. When he arrived from the African parts, Mammet was put in place of Alascila, with the month completed.
Abdirraman a warlike man in era 769 [731 CE], in the twelfth and a half-year of his rule, and the 113th of the Arabs and the ninth of Iscam's rule, proceeded into power full of joy, strongly esteemed in all things through three years. Though he was endowed with much courage and glory, one of the people of the Moors called Munnuz,[clv] hearing that his people were being oppressed through the borders of Libya by the harsh rashness of the judges, quickly made peace with the Franks and then prepared a coup against the Saracens of Spania. And because he was strongly skilled in battle, when all got to know of this the status of the palace was thrown into disturbance. But not many days after the aforementioned Abdirrama prepared an expedition of battle and agitated he pursued the rebel without mercy. Indeed when he was found in the town of Cerrita, he was fought, oppressed with a siege and walled in for sometime. Then immediately by God's judgement he jumped forth into flight and withdrew as an outlaw. As he was inebriated with the blood of the Christians, which he had spilled in the same place despite their innocence, and had burned with fire the youthful and tall Anambadus, the illustrious bishop, indeed exhausted and already sufficiently damned for this by God, and overcome by thirst on account of the drought in the city that flowed once with an abundance of waters, and as he found nowhere to flee, immediately about to die as the army pursued he escaped in various circuits. And because the leader of the Franks called Eudo had handed over his daughter to him as part of the treaty to be joined in marriage in order to put off the harassment of the Arabs and so she could fulfil his desires, as he was also too late to free her from the hand of the pursuers, he prepared his mind owed to death. And thus while the public hand pursued him, he threw himself- already wounded as he was- from a high pinnacle onto the sharp edges of rocks and thus died so as not to be caught by them. They immediately cut off his head where they found him lying and presented it to the king together with the daughter of the aforementioned leader Eudo. Having her carried over the sea, he arranged for her to be presented with honours for the supreme princeps. Then Abdirrama, looked forth at the land filled with the multitude of his army, crossing the mountains of the Vaccei[clvi] and trampling down the fertile plains he entered into the lands of the Franks he struck them with the sword while penetrating them to such an extent that in a battle with Eudo that took place beyond the rivers called Garonna[clvii] and Dornonia[clviii] and after that man escaped into flight, only God could know the number of dead and perished. Then Abdirrahman pursued the aforementioned leader Eudo, and while he wished to plunder the diocese of Tours in destroying the palaces and burning the churches, he found himself in an encounter with the consul of Austria[clix] called Carrulus,[clx] a war-like man from an early age and an expert of military matters who had been warned beforehand by Eudo. While both sides harassed each other away from the conflict of fighting for seven days, they finally drew themselves up into a battle line and fought fiercely, the northern peoples stood immobile as a wall and held together like a glacier in region of cold and slaughtered the Arabs by the sword in the blink of an eye. But the people of Austria, with the strong might of limbs and harsh iron hand, killed the king[clxi] after finding him by striking him in the chest. Immediately at nightfall as the battle broke up they despicably sheathed their swords as they saw the innumerable camp of the Arabs and so they spared themselves for the fight on another day. And rising from their camp at daybreak, the Europeans looked at the ordered tents of the Arabs and tabernacles where the camp had been placed. They did not know that all things were empty and thought that the battalions of the Saracens were prepared from the innermost for the battle. Sending forth all ranks of scouts, they found the columns of the Hismahelites had fled. They had fled home quickly in the night with drawn formation. The Europeans, indeed worried that they were feigning escape in hiding through some hidden pathways, were stupefied and found themselves patrolling around in vain. And since the peoples, having delayed, did not have the wakefulness and energy to pursue, they simply divided the spoils and collectibles in an appropriate manner and returned into their own lands.
Then in era 772 [734 CE], in the fourteenth year of his rule, and the 116th of the Arabs, and the twelfth of Iscam, Abdelmelec[clxii] of a noble family was sent by princeps' orders to be leader over Spania. After so many and such great dangers he found it rich in all good things and thus filled with flourishing after such great pains, that you could say it was an August pomegranate. For almost four years he treated the area with such great wanton harshness that gradually weakened it became cut off from various neighbours. For his judges, seized with greed, imposed such dishonor on the land in their deceit, that not only in declining from that time did it become as though it were dead, but also it became completely deprived from all the best men and completely removed from hope of recovery. Thus the aforementioned Abdelmelic, when asked by order of the princeps why nothing had turned out well concerning victory of battle for him in the lands of the Franks, immediately left Cordoba with all the state force and attempted to subdue the inhabited Pyrenean places. Directing an expedition through the narrow places, he had no success as he was convinced of the power of God, from Whom the Christians at last, in small numbers and holding the pinnacles, awaited mercy. From here and there, he occasionally attacked the place with a strong force but lost many of his fighters and so he withdrew back home into the plains through remote paths.
Soon afterwards in era 775 [737 CE], in the seventeenth year of Leo's rule, and the 119th of the Arabs, and the fifteenth of Iscam's rule, a successor to this man came by the name of Aucupa.[clxiii] After he attained power, as all of Spania trembled at his distinguished genealogy and protection of the law, he bound his predecessor in chains, and strongly punished the judges who had been put in place by him. Indeed while he heaped up ceremonies of the law, he ordered for a census to be done of the population and arduously pursued exacting of tribute. Having put boats in place, he deported over the seas the haughty of Spania and those implicated in various vices. He enriched the public treasury by various means, and continued more austerely and with every donation hidden. He punished no one except by due means through the justice of the law, and attempted an expedition against the Franks with the multitude of the army. So he moved to the city of Cesaragusta and came bolstered by an innumerable fleet. But when he suddenly read of the rebellion of the Moors through letters sent from Africa, he headed back to Cordoba as quickly as he could and came to the Transductine promontories. Sending Arabs to no effect against the defences of the Moors, he crossed the sea after the hoped for ships had arrived. If he found any opponents among them as well as rebels or even schemers of evil and heretics, whom they call Arures,[clxiv] he butchered them with the sword. And thus by deploying all things optimally and keeping watch over the Trinacrian harbours,[clxv] he calmly headed back to his own seat. And after a little time, with five years having now passed, after he had restored the realm to the aforementioned Abdelmelic, he became seized by weakness and soon feebleness returned to his vital parts and he departed from this world. At the same time the doctors Urbanus and Evantius, flourishing with the zeal of sanctimony joyfully departed to their Lord and came to rest in peace.
Indeed Abdelmelic[clxvi] by the consensus of all in era 780 [742 CE], in the twenty-second year of Leo's rule, and the 124th of the Arabs and the twentieth of Iscam, was chosen to be king of the Arabs.[clxvii] Meanwhile Iscam was overcome with unjust rage and with the bridle of greed released without end, all of the peoples jumped forth into an internal war over his power. For all that vast desert, from where the Arab multitude arises, was thrown into confusion in every way as they could not bear the impiety of the judges. And in the western coast, which is predominantly inhabited by the Moors and extends to the southern zone, fiercely acting in one plan they publicly shook their necks off the Arab yoke. But when news of the multitude of rebels reached Iscam, he chose 100,000 men and provided strong help to the African commander, and with an army led by Cultum[clxviii] constituted over East as well as West, the forces were divided into squadrons and battalions and headed to the African land. And thus they decided on their own plan, that by running through the lands of the Moors and striking Tingitanum with the sword they should hurry for the sea. But the multitude of the Moors got to know of this,[clxix] and they jumped forth straight down from the mountain into the fight, naked and bound by loin-cloths only just covering the private parts. But when both sides fiercely came to blows in battle over the river Nava, as the Berbers showed their foul colour on the finer horses and gnashed with white teeth, the Egyptian horses sprung back in flight. But when they attacked more in desperation, again the Arab cavalry without delay, breaking apart on account of the colour of the skin, turned back in flight and fear, with the horses and riders being killed. And while they ran about passing through marshes and remote side-paths, removed from any tether or renewal of strength that multitude perished through the vast desert. And thus all that collection of East as well as West, having escaped in flight, melted away as they were far removed from some remedy. And the commander of the army, called Cultum, was slaughtered as his allies were worn out. And not of their own will the whole army was divided into three squadrons: and thus one part was held by the sword and hand of victors, another wandering through the way by which it had come sought to head home in flight, while the third part was at a complete loss as to whither it should hurry, so they proclaimed Belgi leader over themselves, a man of illustrious origin and an expert of military art. Alas! It reached the Spanish lands.
In that time, as we have said above, in era 780, in the twenty-second year of Leo's rule and the twentieth of Iscam's rule, Abdelmelic was in charge of the Spanish lands. And when he understood that the aforementioned third part was reaching the harbor, he kept hold of the ships and denied them transit. But when the Moors of Spania got to know of this deed, they gathered for battle and aimed to overthrow Abdelmelic, take over his realm and provide the naval transit for the friendly sailors. Divided into three squadrons, they sent one to the city of Toletum to strike the wall of the strong city. They directed another to kill Abdelmelic in the seat of Cordoba, and the third they sent to the port of Septitanum to watch for the arrival of the aforementioned who had escaped from the battle with the Moors. But Abdelmelic, sending forth force of arms, cut apart with fortitude one part by means of the sword at the twelfth mile from the city. He did so through his son Humeia, as Toletum had been besieged for twenty-seven days. He struck another part through Almuzar the Arab, though he was killed along with the army, and diverted it into another part. He cut to pieces the third party, which had arrived to the city of Messula to arrest those who were managing protection of the ships, through Belgi (to whom he had denied transit a while before) after preparing the ships.
Then Abdelmelec, with the rest terrified, returned to his place, advising Belgi through a letter of address to return to the original island. But Belgi, agitated and badly aggrieved as he remembered such great injustices of starvation he had brought upon him, reached the city of Cordoba, which resisted for some time, after a battle had been pitched against him through Abdirraman.[clxx] Finding Abdilmelec abandoned by his sons and the public force, he tormented him through punishment, tortured him with stakes of reeds and heavily flogged him through the whole body in the manner of a horse. Finally he butchered him with the sword. Such great whole armies were brought together among the eastern parts with the commander Belgi and the western parts with the son Humeia[clxxi] in the aforementioned era (in the aforementioned year of Leo's rule, the Arabs' rule and Iscam's tenure as Emir Almuminim) and the battles were fought by both sides: the human tongue is hardly able to narrate them. But as all of Spania is in no way unaware of these things, it has determined that these such tragic wars should be given a brief historical review, for just as already in another Epituma all events have been documented patiently and written in pages by our pen.[clxxii]
In the time of this man in era 781 [743 CE], in the twenty-third year of Leo's rule, and the 125th of the Arabs, the fine Alulit[clxxiii] was proclaimed Emir Almuminim by all in the appropriate place on the throne. He only remained in power for a year and three quarters, with the kingdom soon enough taken away by Izit.[clxxiv]
Then as all of Spania was disturbed by internal fury, in era 782 [744 CE], with the twenty-fourth year of Leo's rule having finished and the first of Alulit's rule, Abulcathar[clxxv] sent by the princeps' orders, suppressed all the aforementioned troubles. Then Abulcathar, also called Alhozan, ensured to manage the land entrusted to him amid the agitation and in the parts over the sea. Taming the proud of Spania without delay, he sent armies in the name of battle. And as the whole East remained divided in unheard battles, since they heard that Alulit had been killed and immediately in era 782 (with the twenty-fourth year of Leo's rule completed, and the 125th of the Arabs beginning with the 126th) and that Izit had been put in place of Alulit for almost a year in rule and elevated into it in a tumult, all began to consider deposing him from rule and as a community contrived through Izmael,[clxxvi] a man endowed with the authority of his people and rebelling against him, to lure him away from the city of Cordoba that was then the royal seat. When they got what they wanted through devising various reasons, and as Zmael pretended to flee as per the defined plan, Abulcathar immediately pursued him headlong with the palace forces. Most who rushed upon the rebel with him hurried swiftly to the intended ambush with the aforementioned ruler, acting in concert with the enemy. Soon joined together they stirred up a battle with vengeful sword, and several companions of the ruler, disentangling themselves from the battle, overcame him as he was isolated. And thus, with his own men killed, they pursued him as he fled together with three men joined to him.[clxxvii] And they put on the throne of rule Toaba,[clxxviii] who had provided strong assistance to Zmael. Then that man, intending to renew the struggle, brought himself back in hiding among his men and finally unsuccessfully stirred up various battles with the killing of himself and his men. He perished in a terrible death along with the multitude that had allied with him. Whoever indeed wants to know these events, he will find them all written in detail in the Epitoma chronicle, which we compiled some time ago. He will also find written there all the battles of the Moors who fought against Cultum and the overhanging wars of Spania in that time.
With era 782 completed and 783 [745 CE] beginning, Constantinus[clxxix] the son of Leo was crowned sixty-eighth emperor of the Romans after his father, ruling for so many years, with 5954 years having passed from the beginning of the world all the way into the tenth year of Constantinus. This man, soon after he was crowned with his father's power as he met his last day, he learnt that his power was about to be taken by Ardabastus, who had become part of the family. For Ardabastus, as Constantinus' general, quietly brought together all the warriors of the palace on the pretext of battle against other peoples. As soon as he thought he would be isolated and abandoned by the whole Senate, he hurried with the allies whom he had joined with himself and chased Constantinus out of the palace in order to slaughter him. But when Constantinus understood that Ardabastus was coming with a disorderly crowd of armed men, jumping out of his seat with his men, he sought the help of neighbouring peoples. Finally when he saw himself thronged by a multitude, he hurried back to seek his original seat, and had Ardabastus warned beforehand to leave the palace. But soon Ardabastus had the people instructed not to open the city gates to those hurrying and so when Constantinus found the town fortified, he surrounded it in a siege of the people and prepared for a most intense war. Indeed when he had worn out the people of the city through hunger for almost three years, he had peace enacted with the civilians through intermediaries and they presented Ardabastus bound in chains to Constantinus and sufficiently loaded down with the weight of iron. Then for such a great crime and not yet questioned, he sent him into exile after blinding him in the eyes and torturing him for a long time.
In the time of this man, after Alulit died, all swiftly recognized Izit in his sovereignty and that his brother Abrahim[clxxx] in the era beginning 783, the first year of Constantinus, and the 127th of the Arabs occurring, was left as successor. But Maroan[clxxxi] one of the Arabs- approaching the doomed palace as he[clxxxii] was drawn into various things in his own residence and off-guard- fiercely sought palace through a coup. The aforementioned Maroan waged a war with the allies in era 784, the second year of Constantinus' rule and the 128th of the Arabs. He found Abrahim was with few, and so immediately seeking the palace he struck him with the sword. And thus his reign was dominated by internal uproar on account of this matter, as he lived through a tumultuous period of five years and waged various battles. He was then pursued by Zali an uncle of Abdella,[clxxxiii] whom the majority of the Ismahelites had chosen as princeps for themselves, from Damascus all the way into the Babylonian plains and was then beheaded after crossing the Nile.
In the time of this man in the aforementioned era 784, in the second year of Constantinus rule, and the 128th of the Arabs, Toaba in the Spanish lands, after Abulcathar's rule was taken away with the help of Zmael, was put in charge by all as a warlike man and of illustrious origin for one year. And when he died, Iuzzif[clxxxiv] by all the Senate[clxxxv] of the palace in era 785 (in the third year of Constantinus' rule and the end of the Arabs' 129th year and the beginning of the 130th under Maroan in his third year of rule) was acclaimed as senior man of the country in the realm. Not many days after, Arabs throughout Spania fomented various rebellions against him, but they were squandering their lives in vain. This man ordered for a census to be made at the suggestion of the remaining population and he ordered solicitously, despite the insolence, that the scribes should remove from the public codex those, whom out of the Christian taxpayers the sword had butchered through such great slaughters of them.[clxxxvi] In the sixth year of this rule, in era 788 [750 CE], on the Nones of April on Sunday at the first hour, and also the second and third, as all the citizens of Corduba looked forward, three suns shining wondrously as though pale with a fiery and jasper crescent preceding were visible. From the rising of these, the ordained angels were devastating through intolerable famine all those who inhabited the land of Spania by God's will. At the same time Petrus[clxxxvii] the fine deacon of the seat of Toletum was considered in Spania to be melodious and most wise in all the scriptures. He wrote a fatherly little book composed finely with various authorities for the inhabitants in Hispalis on account of the erroneous Easter rites, which were celebrated by them.
In the time of this man in era 788, in the sixth year of his rule, and the 133rd of the Arabs, and the first of Abdella Alescemi, Maroan, as we have said, having been chased by the forces of the state and terrified at the tumult of the peoples, fled with the public treasury from the palace and sought to penetrate into Libia in order to make preparations to fight again. Abdella, now fearing nothing, at the instigation of the seniors sought the royal seat. Immediately he sent his uncle Zali after him with an innumerable army of fighters and Persian inhabitants still worshipping the Sun and black demons,[clxxxviii] as Maroan was fleeing from city to city and could find no refuge on account of the evil deeds he had done and the various deaths he had inflicted against the Saracens. Crossing the River Nile of Egypt they pursued him vehemently. But when they in turn came into the place, which in their language is called Azunummin,[clxxxix] then both sides clashed so strongly, that over the course of two days many from both sides were killed and were laid on the ground, and then scarcely on the third day, after Maroan was overcome and killed, they put back their swords in their sheathes and settled down. Then they were sending the barons to Abdella, as they gave their soldiers remunerations from the spoils of booty that could be carried and worthily pacified all the old borders. Indeed the remaining matters of them regarding how both sides clashed in fighting and the wars of Spania grew under the chiefs Belgi, Tohaba and Umeia and were removed through Abulcathar and under the chief Iuzzif by whose order his rivals were destroyed: surely these writings are in the book of the words of the days of this age, which we have made sure to add individually in past chronicles?
So reckoning from the beginning of the world all the way into the beginning of 792nd era [754 CE], in the tenth year of Constantinus' rule, the fourth of the rule of Abdella Alascemi Emir Almuminin, the seventh of Iuzzif's rule of patrician Spania and the 136th of the Arabs: 5954 years. If you wish to take away four years according to some of the historiographers, who confidently affirm with Octavian's reign of fifty-six years having finished a computation of 5210 years, and assert that in the forty-second year of the aforementioned Octavian's rule Christ was born as per the ecclesiastical history of lord Eusebius Cesariensis the bishop in the first book in the sixth era and also according to the chronicle of lord Ysidorus. This is also asserted at any rate by all writings: with fourteen years removed from the fifty-six years of Octavian, there are forty-two in the time of the birth of Christ. And as with the fifth year of Iulius Cesar's rule there are 5154 years, so with the forty-two of Octavian added there are from Adam all the way to the birth of Christ 5196 years, with four subtracted, as we have mentioned earlier, from the 5200 years. If there are added to the earlier mentioned 5196 years the 754 years of the incarnation of the Lord, which are truly computed in era 762, there are found 5950 years, with four years effectively omitted and diminished. But the years are not so computed by the elders to such great liquidity that they are arranged equally in one pen or levelled out in one computation by all historiographers. Indeed in this devolution of years they do not vary much in turn, and indeed we interpolate these four years in accordance with most, who reckon the birth of Christ in the year 5200, lest we deviate far from the ways of such great men, where they have tread. For in such a great accumulation of time, if four years are added or subtracted, they do not seem to cause so much problems. For from the various books of chronicles more years are both advanced from the aforementioned and backdated, so you cannot easily judge beforehand from whole to part and part to whole either in the beginning or end whether you should count the beginning and consummation of the year of any imperial reign as being for one. For as we have said, most affirm that Christ was born in the forty-second year of Octavian's rule, but several say he was born in the forty-first year. For thus the most holy Iulianus the Toletanian bishop said in the book which he wrote against the Jews concerning the six ages of time[cxc]: 'Cesar Octavian ruled for fifty-six years. In the forty-first year of this man, according to what Tertullianus[cxci] and Iheronimus[cxcii] testify, Christ the son of God was born of Mary the eternal virgin.' Surely this cannot judge beforehand in any way why according to some forty-second is found, and according to others forty-first is found? Let it be absent. But thus from the elders through two methods, which would take a while to be recorded, it is reckoned that the birth of our Saviour was in the year 5200, that both the fullness of time deduced through the generations and kingdoms should be more fully shown, and the day to be commemorated by all through the most whole appropriate number along with the whole series of 5200 years should be impressed more openly even upon those who give it little weight. For thus it suits that his holy birth should be declared more openly, lest the number of years be dragged in different directions in a various accumulation of plus or minus. Indeed as the most holy and learned Iulianus wrote in this valuable work in the little book we have mentioned earlier: 'For if we reckon years from the beginning of the world all the way to the birth of Christ according to codices of fifty-two translators, even in some of the following histories of peoples there are found 5200 years from Adam until Christ and something else remains according to certain historians, who have written the series of years of the world.'
[i] The Byzantine emperor Heraclius. The Mozarabic Chronicle's story of his rise to rule through the rebellion against Phocas is the same as that related in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle.
[ii] For referring to Byzantine emperors, sometimes the text spells out the ordinal number and sometimes uses the shorthand numeric notation. The latter is used in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle.
[iii] The use of an additional dating system from the purported time of the beginning of the world is absent in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle.
[iv] The Latin word here is dominatus, to be contrasted with the term principatus (Principate). The Dominate is a term sometimes used in scholarship to refer to the later period of the Roman Empire following the accession of Diocletian (284-305 CE).
[v] The Sassanid emperor Chosroes II
[vi] This episode is not related in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle. The parallel with the story of David vs. Goliath in the Bible is evident.
[vii] The first reference to God in the work, contrasting with only two mentions of God (out of a total of three references to the divine) in the whole Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle. The divine plays a much more active role in the Mozarabic Chronicle's narrative.
[viii] The point here is that Heraclius and the people are portrayed as having committed a sin in not paying honours to God for the victory over the Sassanids.
[ix] Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire/Byzantine Empire.
[x] Referring to the coming Arab invasions. The narrative implies that these invasions are to be the divine scourge against Heraclius and the Byzantines for their sin.
[xi] i.e. Heraclius.
[xii] Transcribed Mahmet in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle. The Prophet Muhammad. The account is similar to the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle in that it portrays the establishment of an Arab empire in Damascus during the Prophet's lifetime (a divergence from the traditional Islamic accounts, which affirm that he died in 632 CE) but is less sympathetic. The text notes Muhammad's status as a prophet for the Arabs but does not use any adjectives to describe him, contrasting with the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle's description of him as a 'prudens admodum vir' ('rather prudent man').
[xiii] No vision of rats is mentioned in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle, though in that text Heraclius is portrayed as initially advising his brother Theodorus not to commit to battle with the Arabs in light of Heraclius' knowledge of astrology. The idea is that the Byzantines needed to gather more forces to fight them, as is made clear in this narrative.
[xiv] Also mentioned in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle and likely referring to the Battle of Yarmouk in 636 CE.
[xv] Parallels the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle. Both accounts mention that the Arabs shook off fear of the Roman name.
[xvi] Abu Bakr, the first of the Rashidun caliphs.
[xvii] The Quraysh.
[xviii] The section here constitutes redundant repetition of the preceding narrative of the first Arab invasions and establishment of their empire in Damascus.
[xix] From this point onwards in the Mozarabic Chronicle an additional dating system is used that reckons from the beginning of the Prophet's rule of the Arabs. Thus, the Prophet ruled for ten years and Abu Bakr for three years. Thus, the Chronicle marks this point as the beginning of the fourteenth year of the Arabs. One should compare with the traditional Islamic dating system that begins in 622 CE with the Prophet's migration from Mecca to al-Medina and the establishment of the first Muslim community as a political entity.
[xx] Omar, the second of the Rashidun caliphs. The Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle mentions slightly more detail about Omar's reign, noting his establishment of a town and garrisons in Iraq to protect against the Byzantines.
[xxi] The wording is almost identical to the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle cf.
hic Alexandriam antiquissimam ac florentissimam civitatem metropolim Egipti iugo subiecit censuario (Mozarabic Chronicle)
Alexandriam quoque antiquissimam et florentissimam civitatem metropolim Aegypti censuario iugo subiecit (Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle)
[xxii] Sisebut, Visigothic king of Spain in the period 612-621 CE. He is the first Visigothic king of Spain to be mentioned in the Mozarabic Chronicle. The contrast in the level of detail with the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle, which only tends to mention Visigothic kings in passing, is striking.
[xxiii] The Byzantines at the time had a foothold in southern and southeastern Spain. That foothold was brought to an end by the Visigoths in 624 CE during the reign of Suintila.
[xxiv] The forced conversion of Jews to Christianity. By this point the Visigothic rulers had abandoned Arian Christianity and had embraced Catholic orthodoxy.
[xxv] Another key interest of the Mozarabic Chronicle: documenting the bishops of Toledo (the capital of the Visigothic kingdom of Spain), other notable church figures and councils convened on Christian doctrine. These elements are lacking in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle. Elladius is the first bishop of Toledo to be mentioned here.
[xxvi] Saint Isidore of Seville, who was bishop of Seville and a doctor ('teacher') of the doctrines of the Catholic church. He was also a scholar known for works such as the Etymologiae.
[xxvii] i.e. King Sisebut.
[xxviii] The Second Council of Seville (619 CE). The Acephalites were a heretical sect denounced in this council.
[xxix] Recarred II, briefly Visigothic king of Spain in 621 CE.
[xxx] Suintila, Visigothic king of Spain in the period 621-631 CE.
[xxxi] Sisenand, Visigothic king of Spain in the period 631-636 CE.
[xxxii] The meaning here is that he overthrew Suintila.
[xxxiii] The Fourth Council of Toledo held in 633 CE.
[xxxiv] Saint Isidore of Seville.
[xxxv] Saint Braulio of Zaragoza.
[xxxvi] Referring to the Rome in Italy and not Constantinople.
[xxxvii] Cintila, Visigothic king of Spain in the period 636-642 CE.
[xxxviii] Tugas, Visigothic king of Spain in the period 642-644 CE.
[xxxix] Constantine III.
[xl] An error. He ruled for less than a year. The Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle is more accurate here.
[xli] Othman, the third of the Rashidun caliphs. The content here is almost identical to that of the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle.
[xlii] Chindasuinth, Visigothic king of Spain in the period c. 644-653 CE, though some accounts date the beginning of his reign earlier.
[xliii] That is, he ruled for six years and then made his son co-monarch.
[xliv] The Seventh Council of Toledo.
[xlv] Taio of Zaragoza.
[xlvi] Pope Gregory I's commentary on the Book of Job.
[xlvii] Probably Pope Martin I (649-653 CE).
[xlviii] Pope Gregory I.
[xlix] Saint Augustine.
[l] Constans II, Byzantine emperor in the period 641-668 CE.
[li] Syracuse in Sicily.
[lii] Recceswinth, Visigothic king of Spain in the period 649-672 CE. He is best known for promulgating many laws in 654 CE as recorded in the Visigothic Law Code. Among these laws were numerous discriminatory measures against Jews. The code notes that:
'While the virtue of God through the sharpness of His word has extirpated every shoot of heresy by the root everywhere, we cry with anguish that the lands of our kingdom have been contaminated by the unique wickedness of the Jews. So we will try to claim through the spirit of God our peace, which is indeed foolishness to peoples, and indeed scandalous to the same Jews, but to us believers the same God is the virtue of God and wisdom of God. Overcome by His mercy, we are roused with the aim of faith to put an end to old errors and to kill off the newness of future beginnings. Therefore we order for an eternal law and decree by the order of the sacred scriptures that both edicts of our laws and opinions promulgated in the legal series of our prior kings, which stand given against their perfidy and persons, shall continue unviolated by eternal consecration and remain observed with eternal custody. So if any of them is found violating them, he will be liable to the punishments of the following laws and lie under the particular opinions of sentences.'
The laws included a ban on the Jewish celebration of Passover, kashrut and the practice of circumcision. Jews were also barred from testifying, even if they had been baptized. However, the following exception was made: 'If those born of their descent are considered suitably honest in ethics and plenitude of faith, they are granted the true permission of testifying among Christians, but not otherwise, unless a priest, king or judge confirm their ethics and faith in every way.'
[liii] Constans II.
[liv] Like the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle, the Mozarabic Chronicle omits the caliphate of Ali and passes straight to Mu'awiya's rule as the first Umayyad caliph. The Mozarabic Chronicle also praises Yazid I in similar terms. However, it is unlikely that this is somehow due to a conscious pro-Umayyad bias on the part of the author. Rather, the author likely does not know otherwise regarding Mu'awiya and Yazid I from the source material relied upon for the narrative.
[lv] The Ishmaelites: i.e. the Arabs.
[lvi] Abdullah bin al-Zubayr.
[lvii] The native Berbers, who were Christians and fighting alongside the Byzantines against the Arab invaders.
[lviii] The original wording in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle and the Mozarabic Chronicle is virtually identical:
preparata igitur certamina ilico in fugam Maurorum est acies versa et omnis decoritas Africae cum Gregorio comite usque ad internicionem deleta est (Mozarabic Chronicle)
praeparata igitur certamina, ilico in fugam Maurorum acies versa est et omnis decoritas Africae cum Gregorio comite usque ad internicionem deleta est (Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle)
[lix] Constantine IV, Byzantine emperor from 668-685 CE.
[lx] The original wording is very similar to the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle. Compare:
Yzit natus Mauie obtinuit regiminis locum annis iucundissimus tribus et regni eius cunctis sue patrie subditis nationibus vir nimium gratissime habitus, qui nullam humquam, ut hominibus moris est, sibi regalis fastigii causa gloriam appetibit, sed communiter cum omnibus civiliter vixit (Mozarabic Chronicle)
quo mortuo Yzit natus eius obtinuit locum annis III, iucundissimus et cunctis nationaibus regni eius subditis vir gratissime habitus, qui nullam umquam, ut hominibus moris est, sibi regalis fastigii causa gloriam appetivit, sed communis cum omnibus civiliter vixit (Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle)
[lxi] Mu'awiya II, Umayyad caliph in 683-684 CE.
[lxii] Marwan I, Umayyad caliph in 684-685 CE.
[lxiii] This treaty with the Byzantines is also narrated in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle.
[lxiv] Constantine IV.
[lxv] Abd al-Malik bin Marwan, Umayyad caliph in 685-705 CE.
[lxvi] This side-note on Abraham and Mecca is also noted in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle.
[lxvii] Wamba, Visigothic king of Spain in 672-680 CE.
[lxviii] Cf. Luke 11:11-13, in which Jesus
[lxix] The Eleventh Council of Toledo in 675 CE.
[lxx] Ildephonsus, the bishop of Toledo in 657-667 CE. The Mozarabic Chronicle wrongly implies he was at this council of Toledo.
[lxxi] The original Latin sentence is interesting for its combination of ablative and accusative absolutes:
quod prenitente tunc sanctissimo Hildefonso (ablative absolute) melliflue os aureum in libris diversis eloquentem (accusative absolute) atque de virginitate nostre domine semper Marie virginis nitido politoque eloquio ordine sinonime perflorentem (continuing the accusative absolute) et hancora fidei eius tempore in omni sua ecclesia insidente (ablative absolute).
[lxxii] Abdullah bin al-Zubayr.
'That the Jews should not remove themselves, their sons or slaves from the grace of baptism
As the truth itself teaches us to seek, search and beat, warning that 'violent men will plunder the kingdom of Heaven', there is no doubt that the one who does not hurry to approach it with enthusiastic mind abhors the gift of bestowed grace. So if any of the Jews, meaning those who have still not been baptized, or have put off baptizing themselves, or have not sent their sons or slaves in any way to a priest to be baptized, or have removed themselves and their kin from baptism: if any of those persons passes the space of one year following the issuing of this law without the grace of baptism, let the transgressor of all these things who is found (whoever he may be) be flogged 100 times after being shorn of hair and be fined with the just punishment of exile. Nonetheless let his property pertain to the power of the princeps; likewise, if the harsher life shows him incorrigible, let them remain in the perpetual power of the one to whom the princeps has wished to grant them.'
Many of the laws reinforced anti-Jewish laws of prior Visigothic kings. For instance, citing Isaiah's proclamation: 'My mind has hated the new moons, Sabbaths and your solemnities' (Isaiah 1:13-14), Erwig ordered as well that 'if any of the Jews enacts or takes upon himself to celebrate the new moons, festivals of the tabernacles, Sabbath, occasions or any solemnities of the other fesitivities in accordance with his own rite, he will be subjected to one hundred flogs after being shorn of hair and punished with the due distress of exile. Also his property is to be returned to the princeps. Likewise, let him restore them to the one who has been perfectly converted at some point, or if the person persists in the evils, it will remain at the disposition of the others who have right over it.'
[lxxiv] The Twelfth Council of Toledo in 681 CE.
[lxxv] A bishop of Toledo. His parents were Christians but of Jewish ancestry. He is noted at the end of the Mozarabic Chronicle for a book he wrote against the Jews.
[lxxvi] Justinian II, who ruled as Byzantine emperor twice: 685-695 CE and then 705-711 CE.
[lxxvii] Egika, Visigothic king of Spain from 687-702 CE.
[lxxviii] The sentence in the original Latin from this point onwards concerning Iulianus' apologia for his work on the three substances of the Trinity is very long and seems to exhibit anacoluthon, in that the word 'librum' ('book' in the accusative singular) does not seem to have a verb to go with it, though the author's meaning is clear looking at the context of the whole sentence.
[lxxix] Leontius, Byzantine emperor in the period 695-698 CE.
[lxxx] i.e. Egika made his son Wittiza co-ruler at first.
[lxxxi] i.e. Wittiza as Visigothic king in the period c. 694-710 CE.
[lxxxii] Tiberius III, Byzantine emperor in the period 698-705 CE.
[lxxxiii] Al-Walid I, Umayyad caliph in the period 705-715 CE.
[lxxxiv] The Maghreb area corresponding approximately to modern-day Morocco.
[lxxxv] Musa bin Nusayr.
[lxxxvi] Liuvigild, Visigothic king of Spain in the period 568-586 CE. His reign saw the cementing of Visigothic rule over the Iberian Peninsula.
[lxxxvii] Roderic, Visigothic king of Spain in the period 710-712 CE.
[lxxxviii] The application of the term 'Senate' here seems to be anachronistic. Perhaps the reference is to aristocratic support for Roderic's coup. However, from the outset, Roderic's power was not entirely secured over the Visigothic holdings of Spain.
[lxxxix] Tariq bin Ziyad. The 'Abuzara' appears to be the result of confusion with another military commander called Tarif bin Malik, whose kunya was Abu Zur'a.
[xc] The exact location of the 'Transductine promontories' is uncertain, but likely in far southern Spain.
[xci] The implication may be here that the army deliberately abandoned Roderic out of resentment of him and his coup.
[xcii] Seems to refer to the internal problems that emerged within the Visigothic kingdom on account of Roderic's coup.
[xciii] Latin: furor intestinus. The precise meaning can be debated: does it refer to the divisions that had been created by Roderic's coup? Does it have something to do with Oppa mentioned later in the text?
[xciv] The strait between North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula.
[xcv] i.e. The Rock of Gibraltar and a corresponding southern peak in Morocco.
[xcvi] Careful note should be made of the original Latin text:
nonullos seniores nobiles viros, qui utcumque remanserant, per Oppam filium Egiche regis a Toleto fugam arripientes gladio patibuli iugulat et per eius occasionem cunctos ense detruncat
Two variant readings of arripientes are iripientes and arripientem. It is the latter variant reading that is of most importance. The verb arripio can be translated as 'procure', 'take to oneself' etc. The reading arripientes is a plural accusative present participle (thus in agreement with nonullos seniors nobiles viros), whereas the reading arripientem is a singular accusative present participle and would agree with Oppam. Therefore, on the reading arripientes, the meaning seems to be that the nobles sought flight from Toledo with Oppa's help and for this reason Musa had them killed. The reading arripientem suggests Oppa procured flight for himself and the nobles were punished for allowing/facilitating that to happen. I cannot accept the interpretation of these lines that Oppa somehow collaborated with Musa to help him catch the nobles and kill them, as that cannot adequately explain the word 'occasio' here (which means 'reason'/'cause'). Also, if Oppa were collaborating with Musa, he would have no need to flee from Toledo.
I suspect those who interpret the passage to mean that Oppa assisted Musa in killing the nobles are influenced by the much later text called the Chronicle of Alfonso III, which mentions an Oppa as the bishop of Seville and son of king Wittiza. According to the text: cuius fraude Goti perierunt ('by his [Oppa's] trickery the Goths perished').
[xcvii] Spain had been divided by the Romans into Hispania Ulterior ('Further Spain') and Hispania Citerior ('Nearer Spain'). The former roughly corresponds to southern Spain, the latter the northeast.
[xcix] There seems to be a gap in the text here.
[c] Likely referring to the Saracens.
[ci] The Spaniards.
[cii] An emotional digression on the fall of Spain to the Arab invaders, portrayed as a particularly violent upheaval.
[ciii] Abd al-Aziz bin Musa, the son of Musa bin Nusayr and a governor of Umayyad-controlled Spain (al-Andalus).
[civ] An inaccuracy as Walid I had died by the time of Musa's return.
[cv] Another gap in the text here. Theodemir was a Visigothic noble who initially fought the Arab invaders but then reached an agreement with them.
[cvi] Appears to be a reference to repelling Byzantine raids.
[cvii] The first reference in this text to an Arabic title for the caliph: 'Amir al-Mu'mineen' (Commander of the Believers).
'In the name of God, the Compassionate the Merciful
This is the agreement Abd al-Aziz bin Musa with Tudmir bin Ghunderis, as he has come upon conciliation. He has the pledge and covenant of God and that with which He sent His Prophets and Messengers. He has the dhimma of God (Almighty and Exalted is He) and the dhimma of Muhammad (God's blessings and peace be upon him). He is not to be set special conditions and his companions are not to be harmed or taken captive and there is to be no separation between them, their women and children. And they are not to be killed, and their churches are not to be burned, and they are not to be compelled in their religion, and their conciliation is over seven towns: Orihuela, Mawla, Lorca, Balantila, Laqnat, Iyya and Ilish. And he is not to lay aside preservation of the pact, and he is not to dissolve what has been contracted, and he is to fulfill what we have imposed on him and obligated him in, and he is not to conceal from us news that he has come to know. And upon him and his companions is the jizya tax. From that upon every free person: a dinar and four parts of wheat and four measures of barley, four measures of vinegar, two measures of honey and a measure of olive oil. On every slave is half of that.
Witness to that: Othman bin Obeida al-Qurashi, Habib bin Abi Obeida al-Qurashi, Sa'adan bin Abdullah al-Rub'ai, Suleiman bin Qays al-Tajibi, Yahya bin Ya'amar al-Sahami, Bashr bin Qays al-Lakhami, Ya'ish bin Abdullah al-Azadi, Abu Aasem al-Hadhali. And it was written in Rajab 94 AH.'
The relevant sections of a variant version read as follows:
'He [Tudmir/Theodomir] has come upon conciliation. For him [Tudmir] is the pledge of God, His dhimma and the dhimma of His Prophet: he and his companions are not to be set special conditions and they are not to be harmed. He is not to be removed from his sovereignty, and they are not to be killed or taken prisoner, and there is to be no separation between them, their children and their women. And they are not to be compelled in their religion, and their churches are not to be burned, and what is worshipped is not to be snatched away from his churches, and that is so long as he fulfils what we have imposed on him, and he is in conciliation over seven towns: Orihuela, Balantila, Laqnat, Mawla, Blana, Lorca and Iluh. He is not to give refuge for a fugitive wanted by us, and he is not to give refuge to an enemy for us, and he is not to terrify a person at peace for us, and he is not to conceal news of an enemy that he has come to know. And upon him and his companions is a dinar every year, four measures of wheat, four measures of barley, four measures of juice, four measures of vinegar, two measures of honey and two measures of olive oil. And on the slave is half of that. And it was written in Rajab 94 AH.'
[cix] That is, Theodemir went to Damascus and had the pact ratified by the caliph.
[cx] The original Latin reads:
ut nullatenus a successoribus Arabum tante vim proligationis solvatur
Whether on account of faulty transmission in manuscripts or an original grammatical mistake on the part of whoever wrote this section on Theodemir, 'vim' ('force') should actually read 'vis' (i.e. in the nominative case, to go with solvatur).
[cxi] Some regard this passage on Theodemir as a later interpolation.
[cxii] Balj bin Bishr al-Qushayri, Umayyad governor of Spain in 742 CE.
[cxiii] This passage is also thought by some to be a later interpolation.
[cxiv] Another gap in the text.
[cxv] Incorrect translation by the author of the title Amir al-Mu'mineen.
[cxvi] i.e. Musa bin Nusayr.
[cxvii] Possibly Julian, who was supposedly once in the service of Roderic and then aided the Muslims in the conquest of Spain. For instance, the Arab historian Ibn Abd al-Hakam mentions this individual on the conquest of Spain, an excerpt of which I include below:
'The governor of the strait between it and the people of al-Andalus was a man of the non-Arabs: called Yulian [Julian] of Septa, and he was governor of a town upon the strait to al-Andalus. It is called al-Khadra, and al-Khadra is what follows Tanja. And Yulian was under obedience to Ludhriq [Roderic] the ruler of al-Andalus. And Ludhriq was living in Talitala [Toledo], so Tariq corresponded with Yulian and was kind to him such that the two came to an understanding, and Yulian had sent a daughter of his to Ludhriq the ruler of al-Andalus to teach and educate her, but he impregnated her. When that reached Yulian, he said: 'I do not see a punishment or recompense for him except that I should let the Arabs in upon him.' So he sent a message to Tariq: 'I am your gateway to al-Andalus', and Tariq on that day was in Talmasin and Musa bin Nusayr in al-Kairouan, so Tariq said: 'I will not be reassured about you until you send me a hostage.' So he sent him his two daughters, and he had no child besides them, so Tariq established them in Talmasin, and verified from them. Then Tariq went out to Yulian as he was in Septa on the strait. So he took delight in him as he came upon him, and said to him: 'I am your gateway to al-Andalus.' And there was a mountain between the two straits, today called Tariq mountain, between Septa and al-Andalus. So in the evening Yulian brought him boats. He carried him on them to that strait, so he hid in it during the day, and when evening arose, he returned the boats to those who remained of his companions, so they were carried to it such that none of them remained, and the people of al-Andalus did not notice them, and did not think that the boats were different from the vessels that came frequently for their benefit. And Tariq had ridden in the last convoy, so he approached his companions, and Yulian and those with him of the merchants stayed behnd in al-Khadra, to be more pleasant to the souls of his companions and the people of his land. But news of Tariq and those with him reached the people of al-Andalus as well as the place they were in, so Tariq headed off and went with his companions on a bridge of the mountain to a village that is called Qartanja, and he went in the direction of Cordoba, so he passed by an island of the sea so he left behind on it a housemaid of his called Umm Hakeem and with her a group of his troops, so that island from that day is called the Island of Umm Hakeem...'
[cxviii] Suleiman bin Abd al-Malik, Umayyad caliph in the period 715-717 CE.
[cxix] Maslama bin Abd al-Malik.
[cxxi] Ayyub bin Habib al-Lakhimi.
[cxxii] Al-Hurr bin Abd al-Rahman al-Thaqafi, Umayyad governor of Spain in the period 716-718 CE.
[cxxiv] Philippikos, Byzantine emperor in the period 711-713 CE.
[cxxv] Compare with the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle, which assigns the actions to Maslama bin Abd al-Malik:
qui mox fines Asiae attingendo pervenit, Pergamum antiquissimam et florentissimam Asiae civitatem bello impetitam, seductione deceptam, igne gladioque finivit (Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle)
Arabas Romaniam acriter populant, Pergamum antiquissimam hac florentissimam Asie civitatem ultrici incendio concremant (Mozarabic Chronicle).
[cxxvi] Anastasius II, Byzantine emperor in the period 713-715 CE.
[cxxvii] Omar II, Umayyad caliph in the period 717-720 CE.
[cxxviii] i.e. Suleiman's own brother.
[cxxix] Yazid II, Umayyad caliph in the period 720-724 CE.
[cxxx] Al-Samh bin Malik al-Khawlani, Umayyad governor of Spain in the period 719-721 CE.
[cxxxi] Theodosius III, Byzantine emperor in the period 715-717 CE.
[cxxxii] An error: Yazid II was actually Omar II's cousin, not his brother.
[cxxxiii] The Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle praises Omar II in similar terms.
[cxxxiv] Whereas the rebel leader Yazid bin al-Muhallab is killed by Yazid II's army in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle, the Mozarabic Chronicle says his life was spared:
praedictus Yzit dux rebellionis ab exercitu Yzit regis occiditur (Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle)
atque ducem sceleris nomine Izit conprehensum veniam concessa reservant ad vitam (Mozarabic Chronicle)
An alternative reading of 'veniam' (accusative singular, which poses a grammatical problem here) is 'venia', which would make sense going with 'concessa' and forming an ablative absolute construction.
[cxxxv] i.e. Held a census.
[cxxxvi] Region of Roman times centred on modern-day Narbonne in southern France. Here, the last remnants of Visigothic sovereignty were wiped out.
[cxxxvii] Toulouse. The clash described here is the Battle of Toulouse in 721 CE, in which the Umayyad army was defeated by Odo of Aquitaine. This is the last battle narrated in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle.
[cxxxviii] Abd al-Rahman bin Abdullah al-Ghafiqi, an Umayyad general.
[cxxxix] Anbasa bin Suhaym al-Kalbi, Umayyad governor of Spain in the period 721-726 CE.
[cxl] Acci, a place located in southern Spain.
[cxli] Leo III, Byzantine emperor in the period 717-741 CE.
[cxlii] An alternative reading is qui fratris regnum decreberat, which would mean 'had diminished his brother's kingdom' (decreberat>decreverat, which can derive either from decerno or decresco, the former meaning 'decree' and the latter 'diminish').
[cxliii] Hisham bin Abd al-Malik, Umayyad caliph in the period 724-743 CE. His reign is covered in detail in the Mozarabic Chronicle whereas it is only mentioned in passing in the Byzantine-Arabic Chronicle at the end, as though the author of that latter chronicle rushed the conclusion of his work.
[cxliv] At this point of the text, a later interpolation appears to have been inserted in some transmissions. I give the original Latin of the interpolation with translation below:
huius tempore Iudei temptati, sicuti iam in Theodosii minoris fuerant, a quodam Iudeo sunt seducti, qui et per antifrasim nomen accipiens Serenus nubilo errore eos invasit Messiamque se predicans illos ad terram repromissionis volari denuntiat, atque omnia que possidebant ut amitterent imperat. quod factum inanes et vacui remanserunt. sed ubi hoic ad Ambiza pervenit, omnia que amiserant fisco adsociat, Serenum ad se convocans utrum si Messias esset que Dei cogitaret.
In the time of this man the Jews, having been tempted, just as they had been in the time of Theodosius the Younger, were misled by a certain Jew, who accepted in antifrasis the name of Serenus. He set upon them with a cloud of error, claiming to be the Messiah and proclaimed that they would be hastened back to the Promised Land. And he ordered them to throw away what they possessed. Having done this, they became empty-handed and without property. But when this reached Ambiza, he affiliated all they had thrown away to the treasury, and summoned Serenus to himself, asking whether, if he was the Messiah, he thought he was doing the work of God.
[cxlv] Udrah bin Abdullah al-Fahri, Umayyad governor of Spain in 726 CE.
[cxlvi] Yahya bin Salama al-Kalbi, Umayyad governor of Spain in the period 726-728 CE.
[cxlvii] This description of Yahya may seem slightly odd considering his restorations of property to the Christians in Spain.
[cxlviii] Hisham bin Abd al-Malik.
[cxlix] Hudhaifa bin al-Ahwas al-Qaysi, Umayyad governor of Spain in 728 CE.
[cl] The dichotomy of levitas vs. gravitas is familiar in Latin literature.
[cli] Othman bin Abi Nis'a al-Khath'ami, Umayyad governor of Spain in the period 728-729 CE.
[clii] Al-Haytham bin Ubayd, Umayyad governor of Spain in the period 729-730 CE.
[cliii] Muhammad bin Abdullah al-Ashja'i, Umayyad governor of Spain in 730 CE.
[cliv] Abd al-Rahman al-Ghafiqi.
[clv] Othman bin Naissa.
[clvi] The Basque people.
[clvii] The Garonne River that stretches from northern Spain to Bordeaux in southwest France.
[clviii] The Dordogne River in southwest France.
[clix] Not the modern-day territory of Austria but rather the Frankish domain of Austrasia. Originally corresponding to northeastern France and parts of Belgium and western Germany, Austrasia under Charles Martel gained hegemony over the main Frankish lands. But the Duchy of Aquitaine under Odo in what is now southwest France was somewhat at odds with Martel. Note that a parenthetical insertion of 'Francie interioris' ('inner Francia') before Austria occurs in some readings.
[clx] Charles Martel, who defeated the Umayyad forces at the Battle of Tours in 732 CE. His official title was mayor of the palace of Austrasia.
[clxi] That is, Abd al-Rahman al-Ghafiqi.
[clxii] Abd al-Malik bin Qatan al-Fihri, Umayyad governor of Spain in the periods 732-734 CE and 740-742 CE.
[clxiii] Uqbah bin al-Hujjaj, Umayyad governor of Spain in the period 734-740 CE.
[clxiv] Likely derived from the Arabic Haruriya, a reference to Kharijites.
[clxv] The precise location is unknown.
[clxvi] Abd al-Malik al-Fihri.
[clxvii] That is, within Spain and not over the whole Caliphate.
[clxviii] Kulthum bin Iyadh al-Qushayri.
[clxix] The battle described here is the Battle of Bagdoura in 741 CE, a decisive defeat for the Umayyad forces at the hands of the Berber rebels.
[clxx] Abd al-Rahman bin Habib.
[clxxii] This work is lost.
[clxxiii] Al-Walid II, Umayyad caliph in the period 743-744 CE.
[clxxiv] Yazid III, Umayyad caliph in 744 CE.
[clxxv] Abu al-Khattar al-Kalbi, Umayyad governor of Spain in the 743-745 CE.
[clxxvi] As-Sumayl bin Hatim al-Kilabi.
[clxxvii] An interpolated passage with multiple gaps in the text is inserted at this point in some transmissions:
huius tempore vir sanctissimus et ab ipsis cunabulis in Dei persistens servitio Cixila in sede manet Toletana...et quia ab ingressione Arabum in supra fatam ecclesiam...ecclesia metropolitim est ordinatus. Fuit enim sanctimoniis eruditus, ecclesiarum restaurator et....scripta...a spe, fide et caritate firmissmus meritis...eius innotescant cunctis. quadam die homo heresem Sabellianam seductus....voluit accedere. coram perquisitus est ab eo ut cum tali reatu esset conscius. illeque abnegans tali scelere...qui statim ita a demonio est arreptus, ut omnis conventus ecclesie in stupore reverteretur. sicque sanctus vir orationi se deditus et sancte ecclesie sanum redidit et illesum. qui et novem per annos vicem apostolicatus peragens in ea caritate qua inchoaverat vite huius terminum dedit.
'In the time of this man Cixila, a most holy man and from the very cradle persisting in servitude of God, remained in the Toletanian city...and from the time the Arabs entered into the aforementioned church...he was ordained metropolitan church. For he was erudite in sanctimonies, a restorer of churches and...scriptures...most firm from hope, faith and kindness in his merits...that [his merits?] were known to all. One day a man misled by the Sabellian heresy...wanted to approach. In the presence he was asked by that man to be aware with such an offence. He denying in such a crime...he immediately was thus seized by a demon that all the gathering of the church was turned into stupor. And thus the holy man dedicated himself to prayer and rendered him sane to the holy church. And he fulfilling the role of the apostolate over nine years in that kindness by which he had begun he came to the end of his life.'
[clxxviii] Thuwaba bin Salama al-Jadhami, Umayyad governor of Spain in the period 745-746 CE.
[clxxix] Constantine V, Byzantine emperor in the period 741-775 CE.
[clxxx] Ibrahim, Umayyad caliph in 744 CE.
[clxxxi] Marwan II, the last Umayyad caliph of 744-750 CE.
[clxxxiii] Abu al-Abbas Abdullah al-Saffah, the first Abbasid caliph.
[clxxxiv] Yusuf bin Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri, Umayyad governor of Spain in period 747-756 CE.
[clxxxv] There was of course no Senate in Umayyad-ruled Spain. The term is used here as interpretatio Romana for the group of leading officials.
[clxxxvi] Likely referring to the civil war between Balj and Umayyah in Spain.
[clxxxvii] This section on Petrus seems to be a later interpolation.
[clxxxviii] i.e. Zoroastrians, as the Islamization of Persia's inhabitants was not yet complete.
[clxxxix] Ushmunayn in Upper Egypt.
[cxc] The work De sextae aetatis comprobatione.
[cxci] The Church Father Tertullian.
[cxcii] St. Jerome, who composed the Latin Vulgate translation of the Bible.